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Full text of "Upper-wind observations and results obtained on cruise VII of the Carnegie"

(3-2* 

r 3S 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/upperwindobservaOOcarn 



DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 

J. A. Fleming, Director 



Scientific Results of Cruise VII of the Carnegie during 1928-1929 

under Command of Captain J. P. Ault 

METEOROLOGY-I I 

Upper-Wind Observations and Results 
Obtained on Cruise VII 

of the Carnegie 

ANDREW THOMSON 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON PUBLICATION 547 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 
1943 



«RNEG!F JNSTITUriOM 

i 



This book first issued March 31, 1943 



PREFACE 



Of the 110,000 nautical miles planned for the seventh 
cruise of the nonmagnetic ship Carnegie of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, nearly one-half had been com- 
pleted on her arrival at Apia, November 28, 1929. The 
extensive program of observation in terrestrial magnet- 
ism, terrestrial electricity, chemical oceanography, 
physical oceanography, marine biology, and marine me- 
teorology was being carried out in virtually every detail. 
Practical techniques and instrumental appliances for 
oceanographic work on a sailing vessel had been most 
successfully developed by Captain J. P. Ault, master and 
chief of the scientific personnel, and his colleagues. The 
high standards established under the energetic and re- 
sourceful leadership of Dr. Louis A. Bauer and his co- 
workers were maintained, and the achievements which 
had marked the previous work of the Carnegie extended. 

But this cruise was tragically the last of the seven 
great adventures represented by the world cruises of the 
vessel. Early in the afternoon of November 29, 1929, 
while she was in the harbor at Apia completing the storage 
of 2000 gallons of gasoline, there was an explosion as a 
result of which Captain Ault and cabin boy Anthony Kolar 
lost their lives, five officers and seamen were injured, 
and the vessel with all her equipment was destroyed. 

In 376 days at sea nearly 45,000 nautical miles had 
been covered (see map p. iv). In addition to the exten- 
ive magnetic and atmospheric -electric observations, a 
great number of fdata and marine collections had been 
obtained in the field of chemistry, physics, and biology, 
including bottom samples and depth determinations. 
These observations were made at 162 stations, at an av- 
erage distance apart of 300 nautical miles. The distri- 
bution of these stations is shown in the map, which de- 
lineates also the course followed by the vessel from 
Washington, May 1, 1928, to Apia, November 28, 1929. 
At each station, salinities and temperatures were ob- 
tained at depths of 0, 5, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, 300, 400, 
500, 700, 1000, 1500, etc., meters, down to the bottom or 
to a maximum of 6000 meters, and complete physical and 
chemical determinations were made. Biological sam- 
ples to the number of 1014 were obtained both by net and 
by pump, usually at 0, 50, and 100 meters. Numerous 
physical and chemical data were obtained at the surface. 
Sonic depths were determined at 1500 points and bottom 
samples were obtained at 87 points. Since, in accord- 
ance with the established policy of the Department of 
Terrestrial Magnetism, all observational data and ma- 
terials were forwarded regularly to Washington from 
each port of call, the records of only one observation 
were lost with the ship, namely, a depth determination 
on the short leg between Pago and Pago and Apia. 

The compilations of, and reports on, the scientific 
results obtained during this last cruise of the Carnegie 
are being published under the classifications Physical 
Oceanography, Chemical Oceanography, Meteorology, 
and Biology, in a series numbered, under each subject, 
I, II, and HI, etc. 

A general account of the expedition has been prepared 
and published by J. Harland Paul, ship's surgeon and ob- 
server, under the title The last cruise of the Carnegie. 
and contains a brief chapter on the previous cruises of 
the Carnegie, a description of the vessel and her equip- 
ment, and a full narrative of the cruise (Baltimore, Wil- 
liams and Wilkins Company, 1932; xiii + 331 pages with 
198 illustrations). 



The preparations for, and the realization of, the pro- 
gram would have been impossible without the generous 
cooperation, expert advice, and contributions of special 
equipment and books received on all sides from inter- 
ested organizations and investigators both in America 
and in Europe. Among these, the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington is indebted to the following: the United States 
Navy Department, including particularly its Hydrographic 
Office and Naval Research Laboratory; the Signal Corps 
and the Air Corps of the War Department; the National 
Museum, the Bureau of Fisheries, the Weather Bureau, 
the Coast Guard, and the Coast and Geodetic Survey; the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of 
California; the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Har- 
vard University; the School of Geography of Clark Uni- 
versity; the American Radio Relay League; the Geophys- 
ical Institute, Bergen, Norway; the Marine Biological 
Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth, England; 
the German Atlantic Expedition of the Meteor , Institut 
fur Meereskunde, Berlin, Germany; the British Admiral- 
ty, London, England; the Carlsberg Laboratorim, Bu- 
reau International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, and 
Laboratoire Hydrographique, Copenhagen, Denmark; and 
many others. Dr. H. U. Sverdrup, now Director of the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of 
California, at La Jolla, California, who was then a Re- 
search Associate of the Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton at the Geophysical Institute at Bergen, Norway, was 
consulting oceanographer and physicist. 

In summarizing an enterprise such as the magnetic, 
electric, and oceanographic surveys of the Carnegie and 
of her predecessor the Galilee, which covered a quar- 
ter of a century, and which required cooperative effort 
and unselfish interest on the part of many skilled scien- 
tists, it is impossible to allocate full and appropriate 
credit. Captain W. J. Peters laid the broad foundation of 
the work during the early cruises of both vessels, and 
Captain J. P. Ault, who had had the good fortune to serve 
under him, continued and developed that which Captain 
Peters had so well begun. The original plan of the work 
was envisioned by L. A. Bauer, the first Director of the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington; the development of suitable methods 
and apparatus was the result of the painstaking efforts of 
his co-workers at Washington. Truly, as was stated by 
Captain Ault in an address during the commemorative 
exercises held on board the Carnegie in San Francisco, 
August 26, 1929, "The story of individual endeavor and 
enterprise, of invention and accomplishment, cannot be 
told." 

After the Carnegie entered the Pacific Ocean on her 
last voyage, there was initiated a pilot-balloon program 
which continued throughout her cruise on the North and 
South Pacific oceans. From October 27, 1928 until No- 
vember 11, 1929 observations were made daily while at 
sea if weather conditions made it appear probable that a 
flight could be followed to an altitude of a kilometer or 
more. Altogether 171 observations were made over the 
Pacific Ocean, mostly in the tropical zone. Of this total 
112 flights were followed to 2 km, 76 to 4 km, 28 to 6 
km, and one balloon was observed to 12.5 km. 

The great majority of the observations were made in 
the belt of the northeast and of the southeast trades. The 
winds in these regions are extraordinarily constant both 
in direction and velocity. The results of a few flights in 



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43 



PREFACE 



an area in the trade-wind belt may be expected to give a 
close approximation of the average upper -wind condi- 
tions prevailing at that season. Thus 171 flights, al- 
though not sufficient for the purposes of the study of up- 
per winds over a continental region, may be sufficient to 
extend considerably our knowledge of the trade-wind cir- 
culation over the Pacific. 

Although the surface-wind observations for the Pa- 
cific Ocean had been collected for many years, almost 
nothing had been learned of the upper winds over the 
same region. The Carnegie observations discussed in 
this memoir represent a considerable contribution to 
meteorology which will find use both in the theoretical 
study of the circulation of the atmosphere and in plan- 
ning air routes across the Pacific. 

The present volume is the fifth in the series of "Sci- 
entific results of cruise VII of the Carnegie during 1928- 
1929 under command of Captain J. P. Ault." It is the 
second of the Meteorological Reports. The first of these, 



"Meteorological results of cruise VII of the Carnegie. 
1928-1929" by Woodrow C. Jacobs and Katherine B. 
Clarke (1943), contains the data resulting from the ob- 
servations and records of atmospheric pressure, air 
temperature, sea-surface temperature, humidity, evap- 
oration, and miscellaneous meteorological phenomena. 
Mr. Thomson's discussion provides a fairly com- 
plete account of the technique employed in making pilot- 
balloon observations on shipboard. Besides giving the 
results of the flights themselves, the weather conditions 
prevailing at the time of the flights are described in de- 
tail. The observations are quite fully represented in 
charts and tables so that it is hoped the data can be uti- 
lized for many different purposes by investigators with 
a minimum of additional work. 

J. A. Fleming 
Director, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 



CONT 

Page 
Introduction 1 

Equipment Used in Upper -Wind Observations 2 

Shipboard Theodolite 1 

Hydrogen 2 

Balloons 2 

Balloon-Sextant 3 

Reduction of Observations 3 

Proceedure 5 

Meteorological Conditions during Pilot-Balloon 

Flights, 1-171 5 

General Circulation of Winds over the Tropical 

Regions of the Pacific 10 

Shallowness of Southeast Trade Winds off the 

Peruvian Coast 10 

Upper Winds over South American High-Pressure 

Area 11 

Trades and Antitrades between 100° and 140° 

West in Latitudes 15° to 20° South 11 



ENTS 

Page 
General Circulation of Winds over the Tropical 

Regions of the Pacific — Continued 10 

Trades and Antitrades in Central Area of South 

Pacific Ocean 11 

Winds in the Equatorial Region of the Pacific 

Ocean 11 

Pacific Ocean off Japan 12 

Trades and Antitrades East of the Latitudes of 

Hawaiian Islands 12 

Height of Clouds over the Pacific Ocean 12 

Trade Winds 13 

Variation in Velocity with Height 13 

Stratification of Trade Winds 13 

Literature Cited 13 

Tables 6-8 15 

Figures 1-45 47 

Index 93 



vii 



UPPER -WIND OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS OBTAINED ON CRUISE VII 

OF THE CARNEGIE 

INTRODUCTION 



Early in 1928 the Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington decided 
to make pilot-balloon observations as opportunity per- 
mitted on cruise VII of the Carnegie . The immediate 
consideration which led to the initiation of an upper - 
wind program was that the Carnegie's proposed sailing 
route lay across rarely visited parts of the oceans, 
where no upper -air data had been obtained. The value 
of such upper -wind observations in the navigation of 
flying craft over the ocean, as well as in the elucidation 
of problems of the atmospheric circulation over the 
earth's surface, was obviously great. 

Since the study of upper -air currents lay outside the 
geophysical program of the Department, government or- 
ganizations engaged in aerological investigations were 
consulted with regard to equipment and procedure. The 
Bureau of Aeronautics, United States Navy Department; 
the Meteorological Service of the Signal Corps and the 
Air Corps of the United States War Department; and the 
Aerological Division of the United States Weather Bu- 
reau cooperated generously. Each of these organiza- 
tions was liberal with advice, and the use of the best 
aerological equipment at its command. 

The Carnegie received a shipboard theodolite at 
Panama, Canal Zone, and on October 27, 1928 observed 
the first flight in the Gulf of Panama. Throughout the 
cruise in the Pacific the officers took advantage each 



day of any opportunity of skies comparatively free from 
clouds to make a flight. The only part of the cruise 
without observations was from July 3 to 21, 1929, in the 
northern Pacific about latitude 50° north, when fog, low 
clouds, and almost uninterrupted foul weather would 
have prevented the observer following the balloons for 
more than two minutes. Only 5 of the 171 flights in the 
Pacific were made in higher latitudes than 40° north. 
The remaining 166 flights were made as follows: equa- 
tor to 20° north, 23 flights; 20° north to 40° north, 47 
flights; equator to 20° south, 79 flights; and from 20° to 
40° south, 17 flights. Of 110 flights within the tropics, 
29 were made north and 81 south of the equator. Thus, 
the majority of the observations were inside the trade- 
wind regions, where a comparatively small number of 
observations reveals the typical air movements charac- 
teristic of the locality more clearly than an equal num- 
ber of observations made in temperate or polar regions. 
The balloons were observed to the following heights: 
171 balloons at the surface, 153 at 1 km, 112 at 2 km, 90 
at 3 km, 76 at 4 km, 58 at 5 km, 38 at 6 km, 23 at 7 km, 
14 at 8 km, 10 at 9 km, 5 at 10 km, 3 at 11 km, 2 at 12 
km, and 1 at 12.5 km. The observers followed one-half 
the flights to 3.5 km, and in the highest flight, no. 77, on 
the afternoon of March 18, 1929 an extreme height com- 
puted to be 12.8 km was attained. 



EQUIPMENT USED IN UPPER-WIND OBSERVATIONS ON THE CARNEGIE 



The usual pilot-balloon apparatus and observational 
procedure have been greatly modified for use on board 
battleships and large ocean liners, where, almost ex- 
clusively, such observations have been made. The small 
size of the Carnegie (her displacement tonnage being on- 
ly 568 tons), and her lively ship motion, rendered it im- 
perative to obtain good equipment, and also to attempt 
expedients which would not be necessary on larger ves- 
sels. 

Shipboard Theodolite 

During 1927 and 1928 the Bureau of Aeronautics of 
the United States Navy Department, developed and had 
manufactured (by Keuffel and Esser, Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
shipboard theodolites, which included numerous modifi- 
cations from earlier types. The first of these theodo- 
lites available, Aero 1928 U.S.N. No. 15, was loaned to 
the Carnegie in October 1928. Subsequently the Bureau 
of Aeronautics replaced this theodolite with an improved 
model, which was employed in all flights after leaving 
San Francisco on September 4, 1929. 

Both shipboard theodolites embraced a principle 
similar to the sextant, differentiating them sharply from 
the land pilot-balloon theodolite. The observer kept the 
balloon in view in the vertical plane by rotating a small 
reflecting prism around a horizontal axis, the angle of 



prism rotation measuring the balloon's elevation above 
the horizon line in an exactly analogous manner to meas- 
uring the altitude of a star with a marine sextant. When 
the balloon and the horizon line were brought into coin- 
cidence, the correct angle of elevation was read off the 
scale. No further adjustment of the setting was neces- 
sary from instant to instant to correct for pitch and roll 
of the ship, as both horizon and balloon shifted together 
in the field of view. 

The optical arrangement is shown in figure 1 (p. 47) 
and the theodolite in figure 2 (p. 47). The magnification 
of the optical system is eight power and the field covers 
6°. 

When the horizon line was indistinct, either because 
of atmospheric obscurity or night, the observer could 
employ an artificial horizon formed by an ingenious 
small bubble device. On the cruise from Panama to San 
Francisco, however, flights were restricted to fair 
weather, during which the observer found the natural 
horizon much easier for the eye than the artificial. In 
using the natural horizon the balloon was seen between 
two parts of a horizontal line, whereas the bubble gave a 
reference only on one side. 

The red and yellow color filters on numerous flights 
increased the visibility of the pearly surface of the bal- 
loon against a background of blue or whitish-blue sky. 
The routine use of a filter was found desirable for cutting 
down the scattered light from both the sky and the sur- 



UPPER-WIND OBSERVATIONS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



face of the sea. A shade glass, designed to reduce hori- 
zon glare, helped on a few occasions to make the hori- 
zon line more distinct. The eye blinder, furnished as a 
cover for the eye not in use, reduced eye fatigue, and 
together with the eyepiece, supported the observer's 
head at the proper position. 

The optical system was supported over an azimuth 
circle, which was itself carried by a base plate capable 
of being turned in azimuth. The azimuth circle had a 
slow-motion micrometer adjustment reading to one- 
tenth degree, but for rapid movement when picking up a 
balloon, this might be disengaged, and the whole head 
rotated. 

Because the base plate was adjustable, the observer 
was able to set the azimuth of the upper circle to read 
on north, and thus eliminate one step in the subsequent 
reduction of the observations. 

The index prism, carried on a movable arc, was 
graduated to even degrees, and could be read to tenths 
by means of a micrometer drum. 

For the purpose of making observations the theodo- 
lite, mounted in gimbals, was set up on a heavy tripod on 
the raised quarter-deck of the Carnegie . The legs of 
the tripod were chained to each other and set in rubber 
feet in order to grip firmly the deck. The theodolite had 
attached to it, below the gimbals, a large counterweight 
which could be made to exercise additional restoring 
force by attaching springs. Actually the observer found 
it most efficient to steady the theodolite by allowing the 
counterweight to slide over, or to be lightly held in his 
hand. 

The most important alteration in the new theodolite 
No. 54005, which replaced Aero 1928 U.S.N. No. 15 used 
from October 23, 1928 to August 1929, consisted in ori- 
enting the optical system so that the observer looked 
downward at an angle of about 45°, instead of horizontal- 
ly, into the eyepiece. The eyepiece was placed so that 
the observer could remain in a comfortable position 
without the strain of continuously keeping his eye lightly 
pressed against the moving eyepiece. Hitherto much dif- 
ficulty had been experienced in keeping the eye uninter- 
ruptedly on the balloon, since in the rolling and pitching 
of the ship the eye could not quickly be brought into an 
easy observing position. 

The azimuth circle in theodolite No. 54005 could be 
rotated about its spindle axis and clamped in any posi- 
tion, but the graduated base plate was not included in 
the new design. The operator could not, without consid- 
erable trial and error, set up theodolite No. 54005 with 
the azimuth circle reading 0.°0 on north. The elimina- 
tion of the graduated base plate considerably reduced 
the manufacturing cost of the theodolite, with the single 
disadvantage of requiring the computer to apply a con- 
stant small correction to the observed azimuth angles. 

Hydrogen 

Hydrogen for inflating balloons was carried on board 
in iron cylinders having a capacity of 200 cubic feet. 
The United States Navy supplied four cylinders at Pana- 
ma, and subsequently replaced them, when emptied, by 
fully charged cylinders at the naval bases at Pago Pago, 
Honolulu, and San Francisco. 

The balloons regularly used measured about 65 cm 
in diameter when fully inflated, so that the hydrogen in a 
cylinder measuring 200 cubic feet would, if no gas were 



lost, have filled forty balloons. Actually, considerable 
hydrogen was required in blowing out the long connect- 
ing tubes, and smaller quantities were lost by valves 
and connections, so that only fifteen balloons were filled 
from each cylinder. 

The hydrogen cylinders were stored in the afterhold, 
and the hydrogen passed through about 30 feet of 1/2- 
inch rubber hose to the magnetic control room, where 
the balloon -filling apparatus was set up. One assistant 
stationed in the hold controlled the gas supply, and the 
whole filling operation was completed within about a 
minute after the connecting hose was flushed out with hy- 
drogen. The inflation balance was supplied by the United 
States Navy and is of the type regularly used by this 
service. 

The balloons were inflated to ascend with an approx- 
imate vertical velocity of 180 m per minute. To deter- 
mine the free* lift the formula employed is 

V = 72(i 3 /L 2 ) - 208 

where V = ascensional rate in meters per minute, SL = 
free lift in grams, L = free lift plus weight of balloon 
in grams. The following table, computed from the above 
formula, gives the free lifts used. 



Balloon weight 


Free lift 


gram 


grams 


20 


112.7 


21 


114.0 


22 


115.3 


23 


116.5 


24 


117.8 


25 


119.0 


26 


120.2 


27 


121.4 


28 


122.6 


29 


123.8 


30 


125.0 


31 


126.2 


32 


127.3 


33 


128.5 


34 


129.6 



In accordance with the practice of the United States 
Weather Bureau, the rate of ascent for the first minute 
was increased 20 per cent, the second and third minutes 
by 10 per cent, and the fourth and fifth by 5 per cent. 



Balloons 

Balloons supplied were either black or in their nat- 
ural color, tan. Observers followed black balloons to a 
maximum distance of 3000 m, whereas the tan bal- 
loons were in some instances followed to a distance 
of 25,000 m. 

From Panama to San Francisco, 6-inch balloons 
weighing from 24 to 32 grams were used. Later on six 
flights were made with 9-inch balloons weighing 60 to 
75 grams. Many more would have been made with the 
9 -inch size had it not been for the impossibility of car- 
rying the inflated balloon through the doorways leading 
from the filling room to the quarter-deck. The only 



REDUCTION OF OBSERVATIONS 



place such large size balloons could be inflated and 
weighed was in the after companionway, where it was 
tedious and difficult owing to drafts and the impossibili- 
ty of installing permanent equipment for proper inflation. 

During the cruise from Panama to Callao the exper- 
iment was tried of tying two balloons together to obtain 
a large object in the field of the theodolite. The observ- 
ers believed that the distance to which the balloon could 
be followed was considerably increased. Owing to the 
fear, however, that the ascensional rate of the two bal- 
loons tied together would not be the same as for each 
balloon separately, this practice was given up after a 
few flights. 

Only a very few balloons burst during inflation, and 
no inconvenience was experienced with oddly shaped bal- 
loons, nor was special care taken to inflate slowly. The 
balloons showed no sign of deterioration in the tropics, 
even after they were on board five months. The bal- 
loons were stored in sealed tins in the instrument room, 
where the temperature was approximately 30° C. 

Balloon-Sextant 

Since the observer had to steady the counterweight 
with his hand, he had, at times of rapid motion of the 
balloon, to make a choice between working the azimuth 
or elevation micrometer. The procedure developed was 
to keep the right hand adjusting the azimuth micrometer 
head. An additional observer watched the balloon through 
a sextant so that if the balloon were lost to the theodolite, 
the sextant gave its height, and the direction of the sex- 
tant pointing gave the approximate bearing of the bal- 
loon. 

Captain Ault's report of March 14, 1929 describes 
the following expedient: "in view of the length of time 
required to hold up a sextant, and of the weight of the 
new balloon -sextant, it became necessary to devise some 



method for supporting the instrument. One of the deck 
chairs was provided with arms and two upright pieces 
supporting an overhead bar. A fine spring was suspend- 
ed from this bar, and the sextant is now used hanging 
from this spring. The entire weight is supported at the 
height of the observer's eye and the freedom of motion 
is in no wise restricted. The chair can be moved to the 
most advantageous position on deck for observing the 
balloon; the ease of operation involves no strain on the 
observer's arms and it serves its purpose with a high 
degree of efficiency." 

When the balloon changed more than 1 or 2 points in 
azimuth, the chair had to be shifted around so that the 
observer would be able to look directly at the balloon. 
The practical difficulties of following the balloon while 
shifting the chair were considerable, and these, and the 
hope of getting azimuths directly with the sextant, led to 
the design of a sextant chair (fig. 3, p. 48) on a rotating 
platform. This chair was rigidly attached to a small cir- 
cular base about 80 cm in diameter, which rotated about 
a central pin, and was supported by rollers near the out- 
er edge. The chair and rotating bases were carried on a 
small portable platform. The sextant was suspended by 
a coil spring from a crossarm carried above the observ- 
er's head from the back of the chair. A pointer attached 
to the supporting platform showed the azimuth of the chair 
on a scale of degrees marked on the rotating disc. When 
set up on the ship's deck the platform was arranged so 
that the chair reading was 0° when the observer looked 
in a direction parallel to the mid-line of the ship. The 
azimuth of the balloon was read directly from the scale 
as an assistant moved the chair around to face directly 
the balloon. Owing to the improvement in the new theod- 
olite received at San Francisco, the sextant chair was 
not required so often after leaving this port, but in the 
earlier part of the cruise this expedient was of material 
assistance. 



REDUCTION OF OBSERVATIONS 



The wind velocity and direction corresponding to the 
balloon's height at various minutes after release from 
the ship, were computed by graphical methods on a plot- 
ting board. The procedure was along lines similar to 
those adopted for pilot-balloon observations at a fixed 
station on land. The plotting board permits the comput- 
er to see and to correct, not only errors in reading an- 
gles, but also those from the lurching and rolling of the 
ship. 

The plotting board used was of United States Navy 
design with a circular celluloid sheet of 87 cm diameter, 
graduated in even degrees around the edge, and rotating 
about a central pin. A set of parallel vertical lines 1 cm 
apart was drawn on the rigid base beneath, but clearly 
visible through the movable celluloid sheet. The verti- 
cal line passing through the center of the board was sub- 
divided for two scales--one for use with short flights 
when the distance from center to edge of board repre- 
sented 8000 m, and the other for longer flights when the 
same distance represented 20,000 m. 

The ship's track was laid off by turning the cellu- 
loid sheet so that the circle reading denoting the angle of 
the ship's heading layover the azimuth arrow at the bot- 
tom of the board and pointed off the ship's position from 



minute to minute along the appropriate distance scale. 

It was always assumed that the Carnegie maintained 
constant speed throughout the time of observation, the 
speed being determined from log readings at the begin- 
ning and end of the observation. When the ship changed 
her course during a flight, the celluloid sheet was ro- 
tated to the new heading at the moment of change. The 
ship's subsequent positions from minute to minute were 
indicated along the vertical line following on from the 
former course. 

The horizontal projection (d) of a line from the ship 
to the balloon is 

d = h cot e 

where h = height of balloon and e = angle of elevation. 

For plotting the balloon's position at any particular 
minute, the celluloid sheet was turned until the angle at 
its edge read the same as the true azimuth of the bal- 
loon's position. From the ship's position for this min- 
ute and at the distance (d), a point was located on the 
vertical line toward the plotter. The horizontal projec- 
tion of the balloon's course from minute to minute was 
thus laid down on the celluloid sheet. 



UPPER-WIND OBSERVATIONS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



As in ordinary pilot-balloon observations, the direc- 
tion and velocity at any minute was obtained from the 
positions of the balloon a minute before and a minute aft- 
er, making the usual assumption that this equalled the 
wind velocity for the air stratum in which the balloon 
was moving. 

Table 1. Example of effect of steering error on 
computed wind velocities and directions 





Steer- 


True wind 


Effect produced 


Min- 


ing 
error 






by steering error 


ute 


Direc- 


Veloc- 


Direc- 


Veloc- 






tion 


ity 


tion 


ity 




o 


o 


m/sec 


o 


m/sec 


10 


-1.1 










11 


-0.8 


233 


5.5 


+ 3 


+ 0.4 


12 


0.0 


226 


5.4 





+ 0.3 


13 


-0.2 


211 


6.3 


+ 2 


+ 0.3 


14 


+ 1.3 


210 


5.7 


- 4 


0.0 


15 


-1.8 


220 


4.3 


- 3 


-0.4 


16 


-0.1 


224 


4.8 


+ 3 


+ 0.4 


17 


0.0 


233 


4.2 


+ 3 


+ 0.1 


18 


+ 0.4 


245 


2.8 


+ 25 


+ 0.6 


19 


+ 3.4 


240 


2.9 


- 2 


-0.4 


20 




236 


4.9 


+ 6 


-0.9 


21 


+ 0.4 










22 




220 


8.6 





0.0 


23 


+ 1.5 











Errors in the computed position of the balloon in its 
horizontal projection arise largely from two sources: 
(1) at the time of observation either the balloon may not 
be centered in the eyepiece, or (2) the ship may have 
been off her projected course. 

In the shipboard theodolite an error in centering the 
balloon in the field of view is relatively more serious 
than in the regular land instrument because of its larg- 
er field of view. This larger field is required to allow 
the balloon to be located easily. Since the field of the 
theodolite covers 6°, the error arising from the balloon 
being 0.1 of the radius off the center would be equivalent 
to an azimuth error of Of 3. The error in the horizontal 
projection, due to an incorrect azimuth, decreases with 
the cosine of the angle of elevation, and increases di- 
rectly with the distance away of the balloon. With a 
balloon at a distance of 10 km and at an angle of eleva- 
tion of 45°, an error of 0.1 radius in centering in the 
eyepiece leads to an error of 36 m in the horizontal pro- 
jection of the balloon's position. 

The magnitude of the errors in the computed upper - 
wind velocity and direction arising from the steersman 
being unable to keep the ship exactly on her course may 
be obtained from a short series of readings made on 
December 30, 1928 in latitude 34.°0 south, longitude 91.° 4 
west. For fourteen minutes an additional observer read 
the ship's compass at the same instant as the observer 
at the shipboard theodolite read the balloon's elevation 
and azimuth. The data in table 1 show that considerable 
errors are introduced into the computed wind directions 
and velocities by comparatively small errors in steer- 
ing. The wind was blowing Beaufort force 4 and the 
Carnegie according to the report was under "regular 
sailing conditions." 

The largest steering error is 3f 4 on the nineteenth 
minute, which produces an error of 25° in the wind di- 



rection in the eighteenth and 0.9 m per second in the 
wind velocity on the twentieth minute. The large errors 
do not occur in the values for the nineteenth minute, 
since these depend on the readings for the eighteenth 
and twentieth minutes. It may be pointed out that errors 
of this magnitude in wind direction occur almost entire- 
ly with light winds. 



WIND FORCE (Beaufort Scale) 






calm 


1 


light airs 


2 


light breeze 


3 


gentle breeze 


4 


moderate breeze 


5 


fresh breeze 


6 


strong breeze 


7 


high wind (moderate gale) 


8 * 


gale (fresh gale) 


9 


strong gale 


10 


whole gale 


11 


storm 


12 


hurricane 



The ship was assumed to have constant velocity, 
which is probably correct within the limits of observa- 
tion. 

A good helmsman may, in moderate winds, permit 
the ship to run a quarter -point off course. During the 
pilot-balloon flights special precautions were taken by 
the helmsman to keep the ship on her course. During a 
few periods of calm and adverse winds the Carnegie was 
hove to during a flight. It was then impossible to keep 
the ship's heading steady during the observations. Be- 
cause of the varying azimuth, one observer stationed at 
the ship's compass read the magnetic direction on hear- 
ing the recorder's signal to read the theodolite. The 
compass reading was then corrected for declination and 
the true azimuth obtained. This procedure was found 
tedious in practice, so that only a few flights were made 
under these conditions. 

Rolling and pitching of the ship are generally re- 
vealed by irregularities in the plotted positions of the 
balloon from minute to minute. When there was a con- 
tinuous change in the balloon's elevation for three or 
four minutes, however, the resulting values of wind 
shift were considered in every case to be genuine. The 
Carnegie's periods of roll and of pitch were less than 
ten seconds. Especially in times of light wind, if the 
balloon was some distance from the ship, the balloon's 
plotted positions were at times irregular, although tak- 
en over a period of ten minutes the direction of wind 
motion appeared definite enough. These minute-to-min- 
ute irregularities may, of course, be owing to turbu- 
lence, but it seemed more likely they were of observa- 
tional origin. From this point of view, changes in azi- 
muth readings, which led to violent wind shifts but con- 
tinued only for a stratum of 250 m or less, were disre- 
garded and the movement over five minutes rather than 
one or two minutes considered. 

Considerable judgment was used in accepting the 
data for the last minutes of a flight if they fell rapidly 
out of line with preceding data. Frequently it would ap- 
pear that the ship had been swinging and when it righted 
itself the azimuth angle quickly changed its direction, 
so that the observer failed to locate the balloon again on 
the new course. 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS DURING PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

PROCEEDURE 



Efforts were made to obtain a pilot-balloon flight on 
every day it seemed probable that the observer could 
follow the balloon for at least ten minutes. It required 
about thirty minutes for unstowing the theodolite, setting 
up the inflation balance, inflating the balloon, and making 
minor preparations for a flight. On a number of occa- 
sions during the period of preparation, weather and sky 
conditions changed materially, so that the balloons were 
lost at low altitudes in quickly formed low clouds. 

The Carnegie could not be maneuvered so as to re- 
main at one point during the period of a flight. The gen- 



eral procedure was to set the ship's heading so as to 
keep a steady course. If, while on this course, the bal- 
loon went behind the ship's sails or rigging, a new 
course was chosen, which it was considered would bring 
the balloon in sight for a considerable time. In calm 
weather, or when the winds were so light that the helms- 
man could not keep the ship on a course, it was the prac- 
tice to start the small auxiliary engine, which gave the 
Carnegie a speed of five or six knots and allowed a good 
course to be sailed. 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS DURING PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 



The meteorological log of the Carnegie with entries 
of weather conditions, constituted an invaluable record 
for interpreting the upper-wind data. Unfortunately, the 
meteorological log was destroyed with the Carnegie in 
Apia harbor. Captain Ault had made an abstract of the 
ship's log for each leg of the cruise, however, which he 
forwarded immediately after the Carnegie reached a 
port of call. Meteorological observations were made 
regularly at Greenwich mean noon, and observers noted 
certain weather conditions during atmospheric -electric 
determinations. From all these sources a fairly com- 
prehensive account of the prevailing weather has been 
compiled for periods when pilot-balloon flights were 
made. 



Flights 



CLOUDS 




Cirrus 


Ci 


Cirro -Stratus 


Ci-St 


Cirro-Cumulus 


Ci-Cu 


Alto -Stratus 


A -St 


Alto -Cumulus 


A-Cu 


Fracto -Cumulus 


Fr-Cu 


Strato-Cumulus 


St-Cu 


Nimbus 


Nb 


Cumulus 


Cu 


Cumulo -Nimbus 


Cu-Nb 


Stratus 


St 


5 1 to 4, October 


27 to 31 



1928 



The first four flights were made in the Gulf of Pan- 
ama from October 27 to 31, 1928. Owing to low cumu- 
lus or nimbus clouds on three occasions, and once 
largely to the observer's inexperience none of the bal- 
loons were followed higher than 1 km. The surface 
winds of Beaufort force 3 or 4 varied from west to 
southwest. On three out of four flights the west-south- 
west surface winds turned to a more northerly direc- 
tion, the mean velocity apparently increasing from 5.4 
m per second at the surface of the ocean to 7.4 m per 
second at levels of 0.25 and 0.50 km. The observed 
west-southwest surface winds agree with those shown on 
the United States Pilot Chart of the South Pacific Ocean 
for the September -November quarter, and represent an 
inflow of colder air from above the waters at abnormally 



low temperature off the South American coast [1]. This 
area, forming the eastern extremity of the doldrums of 
the Pacific, lies protected behind the mountains of Pana- 
ma and Colombia, which interrupt the regular east -west 
circulation of the atmosphere. At lower levels there 
are doubtless strong upward vertical currents which 
cause the cumulus clouds observed. The weather during 
the week these flights were made was characterized by 
frequent rain squalls and variable winds with thunder 
and lightning reported on October 27 and 28. All these 
are indications of the strong convection going on in this 
area. 



Flights 5 to 8, November 9 to 17, 1928 

Owing to continuous overcast and cloudy weather 
from November 1 to 9, no flights were made. The Car - 
negie in these eight days sailed only 626 miles. The 
equator was crossed on November 6 with southwest 
breezes generally occurring. Flights 5 to 8 were made 
as the Carnegie sailed westward, just south of the equa- 
tor, from 85.°2 to 105°4 west. The surface winds blew 
from south or southeast, the typical trade-wind condi- 
tion existing at all seasons in this area. According to 
the United States South Pacific Pilot Chart the winds 
blow 85 per cent of the time from south or southeast on 



Table 2. Wind directions in flights 5 to 8, showing com- 
plexity of winds immediately above southeast trades 



Flight 



Date 



Wind direction 



Sur- 
face 



1 km 



2 km 



3 km 



4 km 





1928 












5 


Nov. 9 


S 


S 


NW 


N 


NNW 


6 


11 


S 


NW 


S 


E 


SSW 


7 


15 


SE 


ENE 


NE 


E 


SE 


8 


17 


SSE 


SSE 


ESE 


ESE 


ESE 



an eight-point wind rose. Despite its great constancy at 
sea level, the southerly current was very shallow, being 
displaced by northerly winds in every flight below 2.5 
km. Table 2 shows the complexity of the winds from 1 
to 4 km above the ocean. 



UPPER-WIND OBSERVATIONS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



Flight 6 was made about 40 km from one of the Galapa- 
gos Islands, so that the numerous changes in wind direc- 
tion observed in this flight may have been because of ef- 
fects set up by this island group. 

Flights 9 to 16, November 19 to 25, 1928 

These flights were made as the Carnegie sailed 
southward across an area where southeast trades gen- 
erally prevail. The Carnegie experienced fair weather 
with southeast or east-southeast breezes and trade wind; 
there were cumulus clouds chiefly around the horizon. 
The surface winds turned from east-southeast to east 
below 1 km, and in the single flight above 2 km this ro- 
tation continued to northeast at 3.5 km, which was the 
greatest height reached. 

Flights 17 to 29, 
November 26 to December 26, 1928 

The Carnegie ran out of the southeast trade winds 
about latitvide 20° south. From this parallel of latitude 
southward to 40.°4 south the winds were variable, but 
mostly from the east. From November 26 to December 
6, when the Carnegie reached Easter Island, the winds 
were light; drizzling rain fell on the evening of Novem- 
ber 29, and rain squalls occurred on November 27 and 
30, and December 4 and 5. The Carnegie sailed from 
Easter Island on December 12, 1928, going in a general 
direction southward and on December 26 reached the 
extreme southernmost point of the cruise--40.°4 south, 
97.°4 west. The barometer reading, 773.7 mm, taken 
here near the South Pacific high-pressure center, was 
the highest recorded during the cruise. Light to moder- 
ate breezes prevailed, and the skies were comparatively 
clear, except for a ring of clouds around the horizon. 
On December 22 in latitude 36.°9 south, 104 °1 west, fog 
continued all day and generally hazy conditions were 
observed for the following week. Rain squalls occurred 
on December 13, 14, 15, and 19. 

The surface winds from latitudes 20° to 25° south 
were easterly and from there to 31° south, from north- 
east. In all cases the winds at increasing heights to 3 
km above the sea turned counterclockwise to a more 
northerly direction. The three flights observed up to 6 
km show a general change back to southeast at this lev- 
el, whereas flight 21 on December 21 shows southeast 
winds up to 11 km. In all cases the winds were very 
light, having a mean velocity based on all three flights 
from 3 to 6 km of only 3.6 m per second, which is also 
the mean value of the scant data to 11 km. 

Flights 27, 28, and 29 made on December 18, 20, 
and 26, although covering a period of eight days and 
made at points 1700 km apart, showed much similarity 
of air motion at all levels. The northeast surface winds 
became northwest at 1 km and remained from this di- 
rection to a height of 9.5 km, with an extreme observed 
velocity of 11 m per second. 

Flights 30 to 34, 
December 30, 1928 to January 8, 1929 

These flights were made as the Carnegie sailed 
northward across the center of the South Pacific high- 



pressure area during the southern midsummer. Except 
on January 7, when drizzle and rain occurred in the aft- 
ernoon, the weather was pleasant, with light breezes or 
airs generally from southeast and cumulus clouds chief- 
ly around the horizon. 

At the instants of releasing the pilot balloons, the 
surface winds were once each calm, southeast, north- 
west, west, and south -southeast, showing the variable 
nature of the surface winds. At increasing height above 
the surface the winds turned through south to a definite 
southwest drift, which increased in velocity with height. 
The stratum from 1 to 2.5 km has the most pronounced 
drift from the south, with velocities of 5 to 6 m per sec- 
ond. The westerly winds above this height have higher 
velocities, one of the highest wind velocities observed 
during the cruise being 19 m per second from west- 
southwest at a height of 7.5 km in flight 34 (latitude 
24.°8 south, -82.°1 west). The outstanding feature of these 
data is the uniformity over a wide extent of southwest 
winds at levels above 2 km. 

Flights 35 to 39, 
January 12 to February 6, 1929 

Flights 35 and 36 were made near the South Ameri- 
can coast en route to Callao in an interval of almost un- 
interrupted overcast skies. After remaining in Callao 
harbor from January 14 to February 5, where flight 37 
was made, the Carnegie sailed for Papeete, Tahiti. 
Flight 38 was made on the following day, February 6, in 
pleasant weather with gentle southeast breezes. All 
flights except no. 35 showed northwest winds above 1 
km, in opposition to the strong surface southeast trades. 
In flight 35 southeast winds were found to 4.5 km, prob- 
ably owing to a low pressure developing off the coast of 
Chile. 



Flights 40 to 49, February 7 to 16, 1929 

This group of observations was made as the Carne - 
gie sailed westward from Callao to Tahiti in the first 
20° of longitude west of South America. Southerly to 
southeast breezes and airs persisted throughout, with 
considerable clouds round the horizon, but no rain fell. 
Flights 40 to 42, made at 14h 12m, 15h 54m, and 17h 
48m on February 7, showed the same upper winds as 
found in the flights made nearer the coast. The south- 
erly surface winds turned to northwest at heights of 2.5 
km. In both flights 43 and 44, taken on February 9 and 
11, a thin northwest stratum was found, but flight 43 had 
above this west -southwest winds to 6 km, and flight 44 
had west winds. It would thus appear that the west- 
southwest and westerly winds reach to considerable 
heights above the southeast trades as one moves out to- 
ward the Central Pacific from the Peruvian coast. 

Flights 45 to 47, made on the afternoons of Febru- 
ary 12, 13, and 14, all showed a remarkably solid cur- 
rent from 4 to 5.5 km moving from northeast, but above 
8 km the flights on February 12 and 14 showed north- 
west winds, with velocities on February 12 averaging 16 
m per second at these levels. Flight 48 showed this 
abrupt change to northwest at 4.3 km, but the observers 
reported that at this elevation the balloon was lost 
through haze or distance, probably caused by a slight 
amount of fog at the surface of discontinuity. 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS DURING PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 



Flights 50 to 59, February 17 to 25, 1929 

These flights were made toward the close of the 
southern summer, about 14° south of the equator, mid- 
way between the Tuamotu Archipelago and the Peruvian 
coast. The weather continued fine and without rain, ex- 
cept for a brief drizzle at 5 a.m. on February 17. The 
cloudiness ranged from 1 to 8, with a daily mean of 4, 
recorded in every entry as chiefly on the horizon. 

Whereas the surface winds along this parallel from 
80° to 100° west longitude had been southerly, the sur- 
face winds from 100° to 110° west shifted to southeast, 
and from 110° to 120° west, farther to east or even 
slightly north of east. The southeast winds reached a 
maximum height of 4 km on February 17, but the change 
in constancy from 0.95 at 1.5 km for a resultant direc- 
tion of 116° (east-southeast) to a constancy of 0.55 at a 
height of 2.5 km, and 0.25 at 3 km, indicates that the av- 
erage height of the southeast winds in the central tropi- 
cal South Pacific between 10° to 15° south lies between 
2 and 3 km. Although the computed resultant is north- 
east at 3 km, the winds in almost every case turned 
through south to southwest and northwest. 

The highest observation at 7 km showed west-north- 
west winds at this level. The four balloons reaching 6.5 
km had directions 285°, 210°, 268°, and 286°. All these 
flights exhibit great uniformity over an east-west dis- 
tance of 2000 km, especially as the value of 210 is rath- 
er questionable because the choppy sea made observa- 
tions difficult. 

Flights 60 to 68, 
February 26 to March 7, 1929 

These flights were made for the greater part about 
latitude 17° south in the eastern outskirts of the Tuamo- 
tu Archipelago. This very thinly scattered group of 
coral islands of the Pacific rarely has an elevation of 50 
m above the surface, yet it may exert considerable 
effect on the air currents in this region of the Pacific. 
Tatakoto Island was sighted at 5:30 a.m. on March 7, 
and Amanu Island on March 8 at 5:00 a.m. Gentle east- 
erly to southeast breezes and airs blew steadily for ten 
days except for March 5 and 6 when the winds moved 
around to east-northeast and northeast, bringing on a 
rain squall at 1:30 a.m., March 6, followed by a 36-hour 
period of calm. Drizzling rain and a rain squall oc- 
curred between 1:00 and 3:00 a.m. on February 27, but 
otherwise the weather continued extremely pleasant with 
the usual clear blue tropical sky, and the horizon fringed 
about with cumulus clouds for heights between one and 
four tenths of the whole sky. 

The winds show great uniformity of motion, especial- 
ly up to a height of 1.5 km, the direction turning slowly 
from east-southeast almost to northeast at a height of 
1.5 km, and then turning back to east at a height of 2.5 
and 3 km. From 3.5 to 4.5 km there is great variabil- 
ity of direction, but above this the winds turn very defi- 
nitely to northwest. 

On March 5 a very high flight reaching 10 km was 
made, which showed solid but light southwest winds from 
3.5 to 8 km. The northeast stratum, which for the pre- 
vious week lay from 0.25 to 0.75 km above the east- 
southeast stratum, actually broke down through the trades 
and came to the surface on March 6. This interruption 
of the trades was responsible for the rain squalls on 



March 6. The southwest winds persisted at levels from 
4 km from March 4 to 12. The change from northeast 
to southwest winds, as shown diagrammatically in fig- 
ure 34 (which shows resulting data for flights 61 to 70), 
is very abrupt, but in the majority of cases the winds in 
the transition layer are southeast rather than southwest. 

Flights 69 to 83, 
March 10 to April 23, 1929 

These flights were made while the Carnegie was 
passing through the Society and Samoan island groups 
between 18° and 10° south, slightly west of the central 
line of the South Pacific Ocean. Of this time, March 13 
to 20 was spent at anchor at Papeete, and April 1 to 10 
at Pago Pago and Apia. Rain squalls occurred from 
March 10 to 22, 24 to 28, 30, and 31, that is, on all ex- 
cept two of fourteen days at sea prior to reaching Pago 
Pago harbor. Lightning was observed on March 10 and 
25. 

Surface winds between Tahiti and Samoa were vari- 
able, but in flights 82 and 83, made after leaving Apia, 
southeast trades were blowing up to 1 and 4 km, re- 
spectively. 

Flights 84 to 91, April 24 to 30, 1929 

These eight flights were made between 8° south and 
0.°5 north latitude as the Carnegie sailed almost due 
north from Samoa in longitude 171° to 174° west. Al- 
though a few rain squalls occurred on April 24 and 25, 
the weather was good, with relatively few clouds and 
light variable airs. 

The upper winds were also light, but very uniform 
in direction from almost due east up to 2.5 km. Above 
this there was a turning to southeast with extremely 
light velocities above 4 km, the mean for the three 
flights available from 4.5 to 5.5 km being only 1.6 m per 
second. 

This is the equatorial area, where the most promi- 
nent feature is the easterly drift of air. 

Flights 92 to 95, May 4 to 9, 1929 

Short wind squalls with rain occurred every day 
during this period, with skies generally half overcast. 
The northeast trades blew fresh to strong during the 
whole time, setting up choppy or moderate seas. Both 
factors combined to make observing difficulties so great 
that the highest flight reached was only 4.5 km, and the 
other three could not be followed above 1.5 km. These 
few flights showed generally a slight turning from north- 
east to east from the surface up to 4 km. 



Flights 96 to 103, May 13 to 27, 1929 

This group of eight flights was made in the general 
vicinity of the Marianas, the Carnegie having been 
moored in Port Apra, Guam, from May 20 to 25. From 
May 13 to 20 the Carnegie sailed west-southwest, mak- 
ing long day's runs in the favorable moderate to fresh 
southeast breezes prevailing. Lightning was observed 
in the early morning of July 15 at about 18° north, 205.°3 



8 



UPPER-WIND OBSERVATIONS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



west, with a rain squall at 10 a.m. and heavy rain the 
following morning. During the three days' passage 
northward, from Guam to 20° north, the winds were 
moderate to gentle from east -northeast to east, with 
little cloud and generally fair weather. There were two 
brief periods of drizzling rain in the early mornings of 
May 26 and 27. 

Flights 104 to 110, May 28 to June 5, 1929 

This group of seven flights was made while the Car - 
negie was sailing northward from Guam to Yokohama, 
between the meridians 215° and 220° west. For the last 
three days of May moderate to gentle breezes and airs 
between east and south prevailed, occasionally broken 
by short periods of calm. The sky on all days of these 
flights was comparatively free from clouds although 
there was considerable haze, and on two days, May 29 
and 31, there was dew during the evening. During June 
1 to 7, in increasing northerly latitudes, the cloudiness 
increased with much haze. The surface winds varied in 
force, but were generally southerly to westerly. The 
Manila Observatory reported by radio on the night of 
June 1 the positions of a typhoon on two previous days. 
These reports indicated that the typhoon would intercept 
the Carnegie's track in a few hours. 

Captain Ault gave the following report on the pas - 
sage of the typhoon: "The Barometer had dropped 4 mm 
during the preceding eight hours, and it seemed wise to 
head east by south and place the vessel in a safer posi- 
tion to avoid the path of the storm. After we had been 
running eastward for two hours, the barometer began to 
rise and the wind moderated, so we hove the vessel to 
and waited for wind and sea to moderate further. After 
another wait for two hours, course was again set toward 
the northwest, the vessel riding on the tail of the typhoon. 
The wind continued to shift to the right, showing that the 
storm had passed on to the eastward. "[2] 

On June 6, not far from Tokyo Bay at the entrance to 
Yokohama, the Carnegie passed very close to another 
typhoon center. 

Flights 111 to 118, 
June 25 to July 3, 1929 

These eight flights were made off the coast of Japan 
as the Carnegie sailed northeast from Yokohama on a 
great circle course to San Francisco. After July 3, when 
the Carnegie was in 40.°4 north and 209°0 west, bad 
weather with almost continuous fog and mist set in, so 
that no further pilot-balloon observations were made for 
the following nineteen days during the cruise of 5200 km 
across the northern Pacific. As a description of the 
typical weather prevailing, except that the winds were 
easterly rather than westerly, the entry in the log for 
July 8 is given: "Overcast throughout with mist, fog, or 
drizzling rain; moderate to gentle south and west breez- 
es; moderate sea." The weather during the first week's 
voyage northeast from Yokohama was generally overcast, 
with light breezes and airs from between south and east. 
Hazy conditions were frequently observed even at dis- 
tances of 700 km from land. 

All these flights were made on the southwest out- 
skirts of the Aleutian low-pressure center. Although 
the surface winds were fairly uniform, being at the 



times of all flights, except one, from the quadrant be- 
tween south and east, the winds from 0.5 km upward 
were extremely variable from day to day, their fre- 
quent variation, characteristic of these latitudes, owing 
to the progression of centers of high and low pressure 
across the North Pacific. 

Flights 119 to 122, July 21 to 26, 1929 

These four flights were made far from the North 
American coast as the Carnegie sailed on a southeast 
course to San Francisco. The weather over the period 
was generally overcast, and rain was recorded every 
day except July 21. Winds from July 21 to 25 continued 
from west to south, but then changed to a strong north- 
erly breeze on July 26. The barometer, which was rath- 
er low (760.6 mm) on July 21, continued to rise steadily 
from day to day until it reached 768.5 on July 26. This 
general pressure rise was because of approaching the 
semipermanent high-pressure center off the coast of 
California. 

Flights 123 to 130, 
September 8 to 14, 1929 

The Carnegie left San Francisco on September 3 
equipped with a new pilot-balloon theodolite and new sup- 
plies of balloons and hydrogen. Owing to overcast skies, 
the first flight was not made until September 8, but 
flights continued daily after this until September 14 when 
the Carnegie crossed the 140th meridian. The weather 
was generally fine, with rather cloudy skies but without 
rain for six days, except for a shower at 6:30 a.m. on 
September 14. From September 6 to 9, northwest breez- 
es and airs blew fairly steadily, except for intervals of 
gentle northeast breezes which, however, continued with- 
out interruption through September 10 and 11. From 
September 12 to 14 the winds were continuously from the 
southeast quadrant. The barometer fluctuated consider- 
ably from day to day in a general level of high pressures. 

On September 8 and 10 the pilot balloon was lost in 
cloud at 1 km, and on the 9th at 2.5 km, all winds up to 
these levels having been from northeast. On September 
11, above a thick stratum of northeast winds, southeast 
winds were found at a level of 3 km. On September 12 
and 13 the surface winds were southeast and continued so 
to a height of 1 km, above which they were variable to 
3.5 km. At this height moderately strong southwest winds 
were observed, which on the following day were found to 
blow from the surface to 4.5 km. 

Flights 131 to 139, 
September 16 to 24, 1929 

This group of ten flights was made as the Carnegie 
moved west -southwest from the 140th meridian to Hono- 
lulu. After the southeast winds of September 15, 16, and 
17, due to the passage of a depression, moderate breezes 
usually between northeast and north blew until September 
22, when in proximity to the Hawaiian Islands gentle east- 
southeast to easterly breezes were encountered. With 
the favorable following northeast wind the Carnegie had 
good daily runs in her west-southwest course, making 
177 miles on September 19, and averaging 135 miles 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS DURING PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 



from September 17 to 22. Skies were partly cloudy to 
overcast in morning and evening, but clear about mid- 
day, except for the usual cumulus clouds around the ho- 
rizon. These flights show, from the surface up to 4 km, 
a general northeast to east drift, occasionally getting 
around as far as east-southeast. 



Flights 140 to 144, October 3 to 7, 1929 

The Carnegie left Honolulu on October 2, sailing a 
course a little west of north until reaching latitude 34° 
north on October 8. Flights 140 to 144 were made on 
October 3, 4, 5, and 6. The weather was generally fine, 
although a few drops of rain fell during the afternoons of 
October 3, 4, and 5. The sky was about half overcast for 
the whole period, slightly more cloud being encountered 
in the more northerly latitudes. The surface winds blew 
very steadily from between east and east -northeast, with 
a force varying between fresh and moderate breeze, en- 
abling the Carnegie to make almost 170 miles a day. 



Flights 145 to 150, October 7 to 13, 1929 

These flights were made along the 34° parallel of 
latitude to the northward of the Hawaiian Islands as the 
Carnegie sailed eastward in the northern part of a great 
loop of her cruise to Pago Pago, Samoa. The weather 
was broken and squally with either showers, drizzle, or 
moderate rain every day except October 10. The sky 
was mostly overcast, and the surface winds very varia- 
ble. At higher levels the winds blew very steadily from 
west-southwest with velocities from 4 to 10 m per sec- 
ond. On October 10, although the surface wind was only 
a light northwest air of Beaufort force 1, above 1.5 km 
the west-southwest winds were notably strong, blowing 
from 7 to 10 in force. 

Flights 151 to 153, 
October 17 to 19, 1929 

These three flights on October 17, 18, and 19, form 
a group centered about latitude 26° north — which is 1100 
km — about four days' run from the nearest preceding 
and succeeding flights. Balloons were not released Oc- 
tober 14, 15, and 16 because of squally and threatening 
weather with rain showers and overcast or mostly over- 
cast sky. On October 17 and 18, however, the sky was 
mostly clear, and calms or light breezes from a south- 
erly direction persisted. On October 19 there were fre- 
quent rain squalls, but in a brief clearing at 1 p.m. a 
flight was made, the sky being almost wholly overcast 
during the rest of the day. The flight on October 17 
showed westerly winds from the surface to 8 km. In 
flight 152 on the following day, westerly winds did not set 
in up to a height of 5.5 km, but persisted to 8.5 km, 
whereas on the third day the winds above the surface 
blew from southeast to a height of 2.5 km, where the 
balloon was lost. 

Flights 154 to 156, October 23 to 26, 1929 

These flights were made as the Carnegie sailed 
southward along approximately the 138th west meridian 



in the northern limits of the northeast trades. On Octo- 
ber 23 and until the afternoon of October 24 the surface 
winds blew from between east and north. In the after- 
noon these winds dropped to calm, broken by brief 
spells of light and variable breezes from the southwest 
quadrant. These overcast skies and frequent spells of 
rain continued on October 24 and 25, preventing any bal- 
loon observations. On October 26, with a smooth sea 
and light northwest breezes and airs, the balloon was 
followed to 3 km, and on the following day, with calms 
and easterly airs, to 7 km. 

Flight 154 showed strongly developed northeast 
trades from the surface to 1 km, with southwest winds- 
probably antitrades--from 3 to 4.5 km. Although at the 
surface northwest breezes continued throughout October 
26, flight 155 shows this northwest stratum is very thin, 
being overrun by the northeast trades. Above the trades 
from 1.5 to 2.5 km a transition layer moving from south- 
west was observed on both October 23 and 26. On Octo- 
ber 27 light northeast winds reached 2.5 km, above 
which level the winds were more an easterly drift to 
5.5 km, when a definite south wind was observed to a 
height of 6.5 km. On the morning of October 28 the Car - 
negie experienced southeast winds, showing that the 
northeast trades were slowly carving a tunnel for them- 
selves under the warm southerly current. 

Flights 157 and 15 8, 
October 28 and 29, 1929 

These flights, taken 8° north of the equator, showed 
the northeast trades well developed reaching to 5.5 
km. It is remarkable that the northeast trades did not 
come down to the level of the ocean; the surface winds, 
however, were light and variable, blowing between south- 
east and northeast with Beaufort force 1 to 3. The sky 
continued for two days half overcast, with showers de- 
veloping in the afternoon of October 28 at 14h 42m and 
18h 54m. 

Flights 159 to 166, 
November 4 to 11, 1929 

These eight flights, lying between 140° and 160° west 
longitude, were made while the Carnegie was going south- 
ward from 3° north to 9?4 south latitude. These flights 
were made a little more than six months after the group 
84 to 91 on April 24 to 30, both at a time of the year usu- 
ally unsettled by the change from the wet to the dry sea- 
son. No rain occurred during this period, however, al- 
though the skies were reported as "partly cloudy'' or 
"partly overcast" on all except November 7 and 8, when 
they were reported as "mostly clear." 

The surface winds showed a curious transposition of 
the trades. On November 4 and 5, while the Carnegie 
was north of the equator, southeast breezes to light airs 
were experienced, whereas south of the equator the winds 
were northeast, varying from moderate to gentle breez- 
es. The surface southeast trades were found from the 
pilot balloons on November 4 and 5 to be a very shallow 
stratum, reaching only 1 km on November 4 and 1.7 km 
on November 5. Above these southeast winds there is a 
uniform movement from northeast, and the observations 
as far as they go show northeast winds to 4 km. Flight 
159, made 3° north of the equator, showed northeast 



10 



UPPER -WIND OBSERVATIONS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



trades with the relatively high velocity up to 10 m per 
second at a height of 3.5 km. When the other two flights 
reached above 3 km in latitudes 7° and 8° south, the 
winds were very light and decreased sharply from the 
velocities at 2 and 2.5 km. This velocity decrease 
doubtless is owing to the thinning out of the northeast 
trade air mass as it projects itself southward over the 
equator. The presence of northeast winds so far south 
of the equator at this season is not unusual, as a few 
unpublished observations from Nassau Island have indi- 
cated. 

Flights 167 to 171, 
November 14 to 17, 1929 

These flights were made northeast of the Samoan 
Islands between latitudes 10° and 14° south. Light 



breezes from north to east were continuous from No- 
vember 11 to 15, when southeast and south airs were 
recorded in the afternoon, and though interrupted by long 
periods of calm, were observed until November 17. On 
this date, after slowly going through southwest, west, and 
and west by north, the winds settled down from north- 
west. The weather continued beautifully clear and with- 
out rain, so that the balloons were followed to consider- 
able heights. The winds altogether were extremely var- 
iable owing to the conflict between northeast and south- 
east trades. Thus, at a height of 0.25 and 0.50 km on 
November 11, 15, and 16, winds were northeast, whereas 
on November 14 and 17 southwest winds occurred at 
these levels. In general the northeast trades dominated 
the situation southward to latitude 13° south up to a level 
of 4 km, but on November 15 and 16 southeast winds oc- 
curred above the northeast current from 3.5 to 8 km. 



GENERAL CIRCULATION OF WINDS OVER THE TROPICAL REGIONS OF THE PACIFIC 



The pilot-balloon observations made over consider- 
able areas are advantageously discussed together to ob- 
tain a picture of the general circulation of the atmos- 
phere. The upper winds in individual flights reflect not 
only the permanent or seasonal conditions, but also the 
passage of ephemeral centers of high or low pressure. 
These passing conditions of weather have been dealt with 
in the previous section and only the permanent state of 
atmospheric movement will be discussed here. Fortu- 
nately, most of the Carnegie flights were made within 
the tropics wnere the regularity of weather conditions is 
unbroken except for the passage of cyclones. Little gen- 
eralization can be made from the flights in temperate 
latitudes until further data which will include tempera- 
ture and humidity have been obtained. The onlyaerolog- 
ical observations over the South Pacific that have been 
published are those taken by Dr. Harry Meyer in 1909- 
11 and analyzed by P. Perlewitz [3]. 

Shallowness of Southeast Trade Winds 
Off the Peruvian Coast 

The southeast trade winds in the eastern South Pa- 
cific from the equator to at least 15° south become a 
very shallow layer as they near the coast of the South 



Table 3. 



Frequency of winds from northwest quadrant 
at Peruvian stations 



Station 


Lati- 
tude 
S 


Longi- 
tude 
W 


Ele- 
va- 
tion 


Annual frequency 




W 


NW 


N 


Total 


St. Ana 
Arequipa 


O 

12.5 
16.4 


O 

72.8 
71.6 


m 

1040 
2451 


per per per per 
cent cent cent cent 

24 5 27 56 
13 45 18 76 



American continent. Within 200 km of the Peruvian 
coast the northwest wind develops definitely at levels of 
about 1 km. In the few mountain stations in Peru, where 



wind observations are recorded, the surface winds as 
shown in table 3 blow mainly from between north and 
west [4]. 

The wind shift from southeast to northwest is ex- 
tremely abrupt, so that the top of the southeast trades 
lies only 200 to 500 m below the stratum of northwest 
winds. The shift is regularly from southeast through 
south and west. 

A series of cloud observations by R. deC Ward made 
at Arequipa, Peru in October -November showed without 
exception 194 cirrus observations from the northwest 
quadrant. Cirrus clouds occur in equatorial latitudes 
between 10 and 15 km high, and, since both balloon and 
cloud are in agreement in showing northwest winds at 
these heights, the northwest current, at least during the 
months September to December, forms a deep current, 
which is constant in direction from a height of 10 km or 
lower up to the stratosphere. In the Carnegie observa- 
tions made between latitudes 85° and 90° west the mean 
height of the wind shift from the southeasterly direction 
to northerly occurs at about a height of 1 km. Just south 
of the equator the discontinuity surface between trades 
and antitrades slopes up more abruptly nearer the con- 
tinent, and occurredat 1.8 km inflight 5, which was made 
500 km off the coast. In flight 6 at 1000 km from the 
coast there was no wind shift up to 6.2 km, whereas flight 
7, farther to the west, showed southeast winds to 5 km. 
The upper limit of the easterly drift over great areas of 
the central South Pacific lies between 3.5 and 6 km, but 
the southeast trades on many flights do not reach 1.5 km. 

The origin of these northwest winds within 20° of the 
South American coast arises from the flow of northeast 
trades across the equator, where their direction is 
changed by the force of the earth's rotation. In the east- 
ern Atlantic off the coast of Africa the trades are simi- 
larly shallow, and are also found at greater heights as 
one goes west to the central and western Atlantic [5]. The 
northeast trades are made up in large measure of a great 
current of air which has crossed Central America at low 
points in the mountain range. This outflow represents 
the emptying of polar air, which, in its previous history, 
traversed the central United States and finally here com- 
bines in the great equatorial circulation. 



GENERAL CIRCULATION OF WINDS OVER THE TROPICAL REGIONS OF THE PACIFIC 



11 



Upper Winds Over South American 
High-Pressure Area 

The upper winds in the great area extending from 
longitude 100° east to the coast of Chile would appear 
from the few flights available to be from the southwest. 
Along the Chilean coast at Iquique, Caldera, Valparaiso, 
and other sea-level stations, the prevailing wind blows 
from the southwest. In flights 30 to 34, made between 
longitudes 100° and 120° west, the southwest stratum 
was observed in all except flight 32. The thickness of 
the southeast trade wind layer above which southwest 
winds blew was 1.2, 0.7, and 3.9 km on three flights. 
Northerly winds persisted to 5.7 km in flight 32, proba- 
bly owing to a small low-pressure center which devel- 
oped nearer the South American coast, the barometer 
falling from 767.3 to 765.4 mm in a change of 250 km in 
the ship's position. 

During January and February, while the Carnegie 
was in the South Pacific, the center of the great whirl of 
winds around the South Pacific high-pressure area was 
just south of Easter Island. The observed wind veloci- 
ties above 3 km were very light over this area, and the 
directions generally from east or north in flights made 
north of latitude 30° south, whereas south of this latitude 
winds were generally westerly. The two high flights re- 
vealed light southeast winds from 8 up to 11 and 12 km. 
This South American high -pressure area with cloudless 
sky is like the "Azores high," a region of strong down- 
ward currents, but with very light horizontal movements 
to the highest levels of the troposphere. 

Trades and Antitrades 

Between Longitudes 100° and 140° West 

in Latitudes 15° to 20° South 

Not only the balloon flights, but also the Greenwich 
noon observations made from latitudes 15° to 20° south, 
show that the surface winds constitute an easterly cur- 
rent of extraordinary uniformity in direction from longi- 
tudes 100° to 140° west. The eastern half of this section 
is entirely free from oceanic islands, and in the western 
half only the low coral islands of the Tuamotu Archipel- 
ago raise themselves a few meters above the surface of 
the ocean. Their effect, however, on the great atmos- 
pheric circulation is probably out of all proportion to 
their size. 

From longitudes 100° to 120° west the surface winds 
have a southerly component and a force of 3 to 5 Beaufort 
force (4 m to 12 m per second), whereas from longitudes 
120° to 140° west the winds are more nearly due east or 
with a northerly component and a slightly reduced veloc- 
ity, varying usually between the limits of 2 and 4 Beau- 
fort force (2 m to 7 m per second). The southerly com- 
ponents generally disappeared from 1 to 2 km above the 
surface, so that the winds developed into a great easter- 
ly drift with its greatest velocity at the bottom. From 
longitudes 120° to 135° west, above this easterly drift, 
setting in at a mean level of about 3 km, is a west-north- 
west wind. The shift from east to west-northwest winds 
is not abrupt, but above a layer of stagnant or lightly 
moving air. The exact height at which the northwest cur- 
rent makes its appearance seems to be variable from 2 
to 6 km. The velocity of the northwest current in the 



stratum from a height of 6 to 7 km is of the order of 6 to 
10 m per second. 

The flights showed that the northwest current prob- 
ably reached 8 km, but an upper limit was not indicated. 
The southeast trade winds exhibited the remarkably high 
constancy of 0.95 or more to a height of 1.5 km. 

Trades and Antitrades in the 
Central Area of the South Pacific Ocean 

From longitudes 133° to 140° west the data indicate 
that above the southeast trades an inflow of air from 
south-southwest sets in at levels from 2.6 to 3.3 km and 
continues from a southerly direction to considerable 
heights. One flight reached a height of 5.5 km and an- 
other 10 km in the southerly current. 

Although further observations may not confirm the 
existence of a southwest current above the trades at a 
point so far to the east in the Pacific as the meridian of 
133° west, it may be noted that at Apia Observatory, 
Samoa, 30° farther west, a long series of observations 
has shown that at a height of 12 km a very strong south- 
west current exists throughout the year, but its lower 
level varies with the season. From January to June, the 
same season in which the Carnegie observations in this 
area were made, the upper winds at Apia begin to show 
a definite southerly component at heights between 4 and 
6 km. After turning through southeast, the winds pass 
into the southwest quadrant between 7 and 11 km. In the 
distance to Samoa unfortunately few flights reached this 
height, but inflight 71 south-southwest winds were found 
from 3 km until the balloon was lost at 4.5 km. In flight 
77, above a very thick calm stratum, south winds devel- 
oped at 6.6 km and continued to 12.5 km, whereas flight 
80, made near Samoa, had south-southwest winds above 
6 km. 

In passing through the Society Islands in the belt be- 
tween latitudes 20° and 12° south and from longitude 
140° west to Apia, Samoa, the surface and lower-level 
winds, though mostly between east and north, were fre- 
quently from the northwest quadrant. The typical south- 
east trades were rarely observed. This northerly com- 
ponent of the atmosphere at the lower levels has been 
confirmed both by the Apia upper -air observations and 
by the Carnegie observations made on her second visit 
to Samoa in November 1929. 

Winds in the Equatorial Region 
of the Pacific Ocean 

Two series of flights were made in the equatorial 
region of the Pacific, the first in April-May along the 
meridian of 175° west and the second in October -Novem- 
ber in longitudes 145° to 155° west. Along both these 
cross sections easterly winds were found to prevail at 
the surface, being for 5° on either side of the equator 
more commonly east -northeast than from a southerly 
direction. The east-northeast surface layer near the 
equator varied from 400 to 800 m in thickness, and had 
a mean velocity at 500 m of between 5 to 12 m per sec- 
ond, thus setting up a vigorous circulation in a region 
where doldrums might be expected. 

Above the easterly winds to the south of the equator 
and more especially from latitudes 7° to 15° south, 



12 



UPPER-WIND OBSERVATIONS OF LAST CRUISE OF CARNEGIE 



southerly winds were found, which turned to southwest 
at heights from 3 to 8.5 km. In the region from longi- 
tude 190° to 210° west and latitudes 15° to 20° north the 
winds were from east and east -southeast up to levels of 
6 km, although in flights 96 and 97, extending beyond 
this height, there was a shift to east-northeast above 6 
km. In the few isolated observations made about 1000 
km northeast of the Marshall Islands east-northeast 
winds blew from the surface up to the greatest heights. 
These winds are controlled by the great high-pressure 
center north of the Hawaiian Islands, which is increas- 
ing the area under its influence during May to June. 
E. A. Beals has found at Guam for the greater part of 
the year east -northeast winds from the surface to the 
limit of observation [6]. These are set up by the enor- 
mous insolation over Australia. This east-northeast drift 
has great uniformity of velocity with a mean velocity at 
0.50 km above the surface of about 8 m per second, and 
decreasing gradually to 5 m per second at levels of 6 to 
8 km. The observations were made not far from a line 
of divergence, the air to the north moving northward, as 
was frequently found in the next group of Carnegie 
flights, whereas to the south the winds move southeast. 
Along meridian 216° west from 25° north to Yoko- 
hama (35° north), the prevailing winds were from south 
or west at the surface, turning to a uniform southwest 
drift at 4 km and continuing from this direction to 5.5 
km, the highest point reached. The westerly winds were 
associated with a cyclone which had its center northward 
of the Carnegie position. 

Pacific Ocean off Japan 

In the extreme northeastern part of the Pacific 
Ocean, in latitudes 36° to 40° north, the surface winds 
were variable. The winds at 3 km and upward were 
found to blow from directions equally varied, but gener- 
ally opposite to the surface direction. The wind shifts 
were frequently abrupt and occurred at various heights. 
In the northern summer when these flights were made, 
this area is dominated exclusively by the central Pacif- 
ic high-pressure area, the Aleutian low having disap- 



peared at this season. The resultant southwest surface 
wind shows this underlying effect, but the passage of lo- 
cal centers of high and low pressure renders the indi- 
vidual observations of comparatively small value. 

Trades and Antitrades East of 
the Latitudes of the Hawaiian Islands 

There was fortunately a considerable number of ob- 
servations of the surface and upper winds overlying the 
area between San Francisco and Honolulu. In the east- 
erly part of this voyage to Honolulu the surface winds 
observed were northerly, with a tendency to veer around 
to east at 1.5 km and even to southeast in some flights. 

Along the northern limit of the northeast trades the 
surface winds were variable and marked by the passage 
of a small center of high pressure. Over the area lying 
from longitude 120° to 160° west, and from the Tropic of 
Cancer northward to latitude 30° north, the winds at the 
surface and lower levels blew steadily from east and 
northeast. The single high flight in latitude 25° north, 
showed that northeast winds turned to southeast at 5 km, 
south at 6 km, and blew strongly from southwest from 8 
to 9 km. In the study of upper winds at Honolulu, E. A. 
Beals [6, pp. 222-226] found that the frequency of east 
and east-northeast winds decreases rapidly above 2 km, 
and that the southwest drift first makes itself pro- 
nounced at 6 km. The southwest winds doubtless come 
down to lower and lower levels at increasing latitudes 
north of Honolulu until they reach the surface through- 
out the year at about latitude 35° north [1, p. 468]. The 
Carnegie encountered these strong westerly surface 
winds in latitude 34° north during October, and a few 
days earlier in latitudes 31.°6 and 33. °0 north at heights 
of 3 and 1.5 km respectively. South of latitude 20° north 
the few flights showed generally strong northeast trades 
overrun by an easterly drift. Above the easterly drift 
the winds at varying heights turned through south to 
southwest. In latitude 15°9 north, south winds occurred 
at 2 km, whereas in latitude 9.°9 north they occurred on- 
ly above 6 km. 



HEIGHT OF CLOUDS OVER THE PACIFIC OCEAN 



Table 4. 



Estimated height of cloud above surface of ocean as determined from disappearance of pilot balloons 

into cloud mass 





Latitude 
zone 


Occasions when cloud forms 


were observed at various heights (in 


meters) over 


Pacific Ocean 


Cloud 


410- 


800- 


1170- 


1530- 


1890- 


2250- 


2610- 


2970- 


3330- 


3690- 


4590- 


5490- 


6210- 




sur- 
face 


411 


801 


1171 


1531 


1891 


2251 


2611 


2971 


3331 


3691 


4591 


5491 


cu 


0°-20° S 




1 


3 


4 


4 


4 


2 


1 


2 


2 


5 


2 




cu 


0°-20° N 


1 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 


1 


4 




1 


3 




cu 


20°-41° S 




2 








1 


1 




1 






9 a 


, , 


cu 


20°-48°N 




2 


4 


5 


1 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 








cu 


Sum 


1 


7 


9 


12 


8 


11 


6 


3 


8 


3 


6 


5 


, . 


St 


20°-48°N 




1 


• • 


2 


• • 


•• 


1 




•• 


'•• 









All flights in which the observer stated that the bal- 
loon was lost sight of on account of clouds, either en- 
tirely or for a time, were analyzed to determine, as far 
as the data permitted, the height of clouds over the 



ocean. The observer noted in his record balloons "en- 
tering cloud" and those passing "behind cloud." Thus, 
when a tan balloon passed in front of a cloud—especial- 
ly one with a white background, such as a cumulus 



TRADE WINDS 



13 



cloud--it was difficult to recognize, and increased the 
other difficulties which are inherent to observing on 
ship. 

The flights were made when conditions were favor- 
able for observing, and naturally the sky had little cloud 
in the anticipated direction of the balloon's flight. Fre- 
quently, however, clouds were present in other quarters 
of the sky. Cumulus clouds were almost exclusively re- 
corded, and mostly of the fair-weather type (cumulus- 
humilis). It would appear that strato-cumulus clouds 
were included under the term cumulus. From latitude 
20° north to 20° south in the equatorial region cumulus 



clouds predominated, frequently in broad strata from 
1.2 to 2.2 km and from 3.7 to 5.5 km. In the North and 
South Pacific outside this tropical belt the most common 
occurrence of clouds was from 0.8 to 1.5 km. 

Observation of cirrus clouds during balloon flights 
was rare. In flight 59 (latitude 13.°0 south, longitude 
119.°8 west) the balloon was lost in cirrus clouds at 7.6 
km, and in flight 66 (latitude 17.°1 south, longitude 135.°5 
west) at 10.9 km. 

Stratus-cloud heights were measured on several oc- 
casions in the northern Pacific at heights varying from 
0.4 to 2.6 km. 



TRADE WINDS 



Variation in Velocity with Height 

In flights 40 to 49, made where the trades are well 
developed off the South American coast, the maximum 
mean wind velocity, 7 m per second, occurred at the 
second minute of the flight, and the most rapidly moving 
stratum occurred between a height of 200 and 400 m 
above the surface. Farther west, midway between the 
Tuamotu Archipelago and South America, where the 
trades are most strongly developed in the South Pacific, 
the mean maximum velocity of 10.3 m per second oc- 
curred at the fourth minute, and the whole stratum from 
400 to 1200 m had a mean velocity of 10 m per second. 
Above this stratum the wind velocity decreased rapidly 
to 3 m per second at the level of 3 km, at which the 
smallest wind velocities occurred over the eastern trade- 
wind region traversed by the Carnegie during the south- 
ern summer. Farther west in the Pacific the Carnegie 
observations indicate that the height of air stratum of 
minimum velocity is somewhat higher, namely, 4 km 
(fig. 45b). This agrees with the upper-wind velocities 
determined only on days comparatively free from clouds 
at Apia in longitude 171 °8 west, which indicate a broad 
minimum from 1.5 to 4 km with the lowest value of 3.9 
m per second at 3.5 km. 



Stratification of Trade Winds 

The winds over the Atlantic Ocean have been recog- 
nized by almost all observers to have a stratiform char- 
acter. At certain levels, good for all latitudes, changes 
in the structure of the air strata over the ocean are 
clearly marked in temperature records, but they can al- 
so be seen in changes in wind direction and less clearly 



in wind velocity. These wind shifts are not those asso- 
ciated with cyclones, anticyclones, and large scale pres- 
sure distributions, but arise from turbulence and fric- 
tion in air strata. 

Since the horizontal projection of the balloon's posi- 
tion was determined only for each minute, close approx- 
imation of the height of a discontinuity cannot be given. 
The criterion used in determining the discontinuity level 
was a wind shift, especially when accompanied by a 
change in velocity. An inspection of the plotted points 
(tab. 5) representing the balloon's position on a horizon- 



Table 5. Heights where wind shifts occur, indicating 
change in air stratum 





Minute and corresponding height in 


meters 


Flights 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 




415 


610 


800 


990 


1170 


1350 


1530 1710 1890 


1- 39 


4 


1 


6 


2 


2 




2 


1 


40- 61 






7 




4 




3 


6 


62- 83 


1 


1 


9 


2 


1 


1 


6 


1 


92-110 


2 


5 


8 






1 


3 


1 


123-171 


10 


3 


14 


1 


8 


1 


3 


1 2 


Total 


17 


10 


44 


5 


15 


3 


17 


4 8 



tal projection (figs. 6-27) shows that they lie usually on 
a succession of straight lines representing various dis- 
tinct strata of air. In some flights the personal factor 
enters considerably in determining the minutes where 
the strata may be considered to begin or end. The writ- 
er and another person studied each flight to avoid or at 
least to reduce the personal element. 



LITERATURE CITED 



1. Hann, J. v. Lehrbuch der Meteorologie, 4th ed., p. 

151 (1926). 

2. Ault, Captain J. P. Jour. Terr. Mag., vol. 34, pp. 

254-255 (1929). 

3. Perlewitz, P. Ann. Hydrogr., vol.40, p. 454 (1912). 

4. Knoche, K. Klimakunde von Sudamerika, p. 279 (1930). 



5. Sverdrup, H. U. Der Nordatlantische Passat, Veroff. 

Geophys. Inst. Univ. Leipzig, vol. 2, Heft 1, p. 51 
(1917). 

6. Beals, E. A. Mon. Weath. Rev., vol. 55, pp. 224-226 

(1927). 



TABLES 6-8 



(For tables 1-5 see pages 4, 5, 10, 12, and 13) 



CLOUD FORMS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED 



Cirrus 


Ci 


Cirro-Stratus 


Ci-St 


Cirro -Cumulus 


Ci-Cu 


Alto-Stratus 


A -St 


Alto -Cumulus 


A-Cu 


Fracto -Cumulus 


Fr-Cu 



Str ato -C umulus 


St-Cu 


Nimbus 


Nb 


Cumulus 


Cu 


Cumulo -Nimbus 


Cu-Nb 


Stratus 


St 



in 

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CO 

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17 



Table 



-Upper-wind components determined from pilot-balloon 





Date 


Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


Surface 


0. 


25 


0. 


50 


0. 


75 


1.0 




1928 


hour 


e 


e 




° or i 


n/sec 


°or 


n/sec 


° or 


n/sec 


°or m/sec 


or m/sec 


1 


Oct 27 


16.4 


5.4 N 


80.0 


Total 


270 


4.0 


312 


5.9 


330 


6.6 


359 


6.6 


18 7.2 












E 


_ 


4.0 


- 


4.4 


- 


3.3 


_ 


0.1 


+ 2.2 












N 




0.0 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


5.7 


+ 


6.6 


+ 6.8 


2 


Oct 29 


14.5 


4.0 N 


80.0 


Total 
£ 
N 


236 


4.0 
3.3 
2.2 


251 


5.3 
5.0 
1.7 


[251 


4.5] 

4.2 

1.5 








3 


Oct 29 


14.7 


4.0 N 


80-0 


Total 
E 
N 


236~ 


4.0 
3.3 
2.2 


255 


7.1 

6.9 
1.8 


259 


6.4 
6.3 
1.2 








4 


Oct 31 


17.3 


5.0 N 


82.2 


Total 
E 
N 


236 


9.4 
7.8 
5.3 


234 


11.3 
9.1 

6.6 


236 


12.8 

10.6 

7.2 








5 


Nov 9 


14.6 


1.4 S 


85.2 


Total 


180 


4.0 


185 


1.6 


183 


1.6 


183 


2.1 


183 2.3 












E 




0.0 


- 


0.1 


- 


0.1 


- 


0.1 


- 0.1 












N 


- 


4.0 


- 


1.6 


- 


1.6 


- 


2.1 


- 2.3 


6 


Nov 11 


13.3 


1.8 S 


89.3 


Total 


180 


4.0 


173 


4.1 


176 


4.0 


283 


2.9 


310 4.2 












E 




0.0 


+ 


0.5 


+ 


0.3 


- 


2.8 


- 3.2 












N 


- 


4.0 


_ 


4.0 


- 


4.0 


+ 


0.6 


+ 2.7 


7 


Nov 15 


14.1 


2.6 S 


96.0 


Total 


135 


5.4 


137 


7.8 


138 


7.5 


123 


5.7 


74 7.6 












E 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


5.3 


+ 


5.0 


+ 


4.8 


+ 7.3 












N 


_ 


3.8 


_ 


5.7 


_ 


5.6 


_ 


3.1 


+ 2.1 


8 


Nov 17 


13.4 


3.3 S 


100.1 


Total 


158 


6.7 


154 


9.0 


153 


9.6 


151 


9.1 


156 7.3 












E 


+ 


2.6 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


4.4 


+ 


4.4 


+ 3.0 












N 


- 


6.2 


- 


8.1 


- 


8.6 


_ 


8.0 


- 6.7 


9 


Nov 19 


14.4 


4.8 S 


105.4 


Total 


124 


6.7 


129 


6.8 


129 


7.7 


130 


9.1 


117 8.7 












E 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


5.3 


+ 


6.0 


+ 


7.0 


+ 7.8 












N 


- 


3.7 


- 


4.3 


- 


4.8 


- 


5.8 


- 4.0 


10 


Nov 20 


15.5 


7.3 S 


107.1 


Total 


112 


6.7 


110 


7.6 


113 


8.8 


120 


10. 


129 9.8 












E 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


7.1 


+ 


8.1 


+ 


8.7 


+ 7.6 












N 


- 


2.6 


- 


2.6 


- 


3.4 


- 


5.0 


- 6.2 


11 


Nov 22 


15.3 


12.3 S 


110.6 


Total 


112 


9.4 


117 


9.0 


114 


9.8 


119 


9.8 


122 9.8 












E 


+ 


8.7 


+ 


8.0 


+ 


9.0 


+ 


8.6 


+ 8.3 












N 


- 


3.6 


- 


4.1 


- 


4.0 


- 


4.8 


- 5.2 


12 


Nov 22 


15.7 


12.3 S 


110.6 


Total 


112 


9.4 


114 


8.6 


Ill 


7.7 


113 


8.6 


98 9.0 












E 


+ 


8.7 


+ 


7.9 


+ 


7.2 


+ 


7.9 


■f 8.9 












N 


_ 


3.6 


_ 


3.5 


- 


2.8 


- 


3.4 


- 1.2 


13 


Nov 23 


15.6 


14.5 S 


112.1 


Total 


112 


6.7 


112 


8.0 


108 


8.0 


99 


7.9 


91 8.3 












E 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


7.4 


+ 


7.6 


+ 


7.8 


+ 8.3 












N 


_ 


2.5 


- 


3.0 


- 


2.5 


- 


1.2 


- 0.1 


14 


Nov 24 


14.2 


17.0 S 


113.2 


Total 


101 


6.7 


86 


8.7 


89 


9.1 


86 


9.7 


78 10.1 












E 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


8.7 


+ 


9.1 


+ 


9.7 


+ 9.9 












N 


- 


1.3 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


0.2 


+ 


0.7 


+ 2.1 


15 


Nov 25 


14.4 


19.5 S 


114.1 


Total 


90 


6.7 


100 


10.0 


100 


10.3 


106 


10. 1 


107 8.5 












E 


+ 


6.7 


+ 


9.8 


+ 


10.1 


+ 


9.7 


+ 8.1 












N 




0.0 


- 


1.7 


- 


1.8 


- 


2.8 


- 2.5 


16 


Nov 25 


14.6 


19.5 S 


114.1 


Total 


90 


6.7 


107 


11.5 


98 


10.3 


91 


9.0 


92 9.0 












E 


+ 


6.7 


+ 


11.0 


+ 


10-2 


+ 


9.0 


+ 9.0 












N 




0.0 


- 


3.4 


_ 


1.4 


- 


0.2 


- 0.3 


17 


Nov 26 


16.4 


22.1 S 


114.4 


Total 


90 


4.0 


99 


5.8 


94 


5.6 


88 


5.8 


84 8.0 












E 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


5.7 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


5.8 


+ 8.0 












N 




0.0 


- 


0.9 


- 


0.4 


+ 


0.2 


+ 0.8 


18 


Nov 27 


13.4 


23.4 S 


114.8 


Total 


79 


4.0 


100 


6.3 


98 


7.1 


105 


7.2 


116 7.0 












E 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


7.0 


+ 


7.0 


+ 6.3 












N 


+ 


0.8 


- 


1.1 


- 


1.0 


- 


1.9 


- 3.1 


19 


Nov 29 


16.6 


25.1 S 


115.5 


Total 


101 


4.0 


109 


8.3 


117 


8.5 


88 


7.3 


78 6.9 












E 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


7.8 


+ 


10.4 


+ 


7.3 


+ 6.8 












N 


- 


0.8 


- 


2.7 


- 


5.3 


+ 


0.2 


+ 1.4 


20 


Nov 30 


14.5 


28.3 S 


115.1 


Total 


45 


4.0 


56 


10.2 


52 


8.8 


59 


7.3 


62 5.4 












E 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


8.5 


+ 


6.9 


+ 


6.3 


+ 4.8 












N 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


5.7 


+ 


5.4 


+ 


3.8 


+ 2.5 




Date 


Local 

appar - 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


6.( 


D 


6. 


5 


7. 


D 


7. 


5 


8.0 




1928 


hour 





e 




° or i 


n/sec 


° or 


n/sec 


or 


n/sec 


or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


18 


Nov 27 


13.4 


23.4 S 


114.8 


Total 
E 
N 


165 

+ 


3.5 

0.9 
3.4 
















20 


Nov 30 


14.5 


28.3 S 


115.1 


Total 


94 


3.1 


94 


2.8 


91 


3.4 


86 


4.3 














E 


+ 


3.1 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


3.4 


+ 


4.3 














N 


- 


0.2 


- 


0.2 


- 


0.1 


+ 


0.3 





18 



flights made on the Carnegie, Pacific Ocean, 1928-1929 



Heights in kilometers 



1.5 



2.0 



2.5 



3.0 



3.5 



4.0 



4.5 



5.0 



5.5 



°or m/sec °or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec "or m/sec °or m/sec 



220 



220 



31 



55 



3.3 
2.1 
2.5 
5.2 
3.3 
4.0 
6.9 
3.6 
5.9 
3.3 



51 



307 



188 



55 



103 



18 



3.5 


340 4.8 


360 4.6 


2.8 


- 1.6 


0.0 


2.1 


+ 4.5 


+ 4.6 


7.8 


132 3.0 


79 4.0 


1.1 


+ 2.2 


+ 3.9 


7.7 


- 2.0 


+ 0.8 


3.4 


97 3.6 


101 10.7 


2.8 


+ 3.6 


+10.5 


2.0 


- 4.4 


- 2.0 


4.3 


104 10.8 


119 8.3 


4.2 


+10.5 


+ 7.3 


1.0 


- 2.6 


- 4.0 


4.1 


4 6.2 


356 5.2 


1.3 


+ 0.4 


- 0.4 


3.9 


+ 6.2 


+ 5.2 



322 



320 



88 



154 



142 



3.8 
2.3 
3.0 
7.9 
5.1 
6.0 
8.0 
8.0 
0.3 
4.2 
1.8 
3.8 
3.3 
2.0 
2.6 



335 



206 



128 



117 



109 



5.0 
2.1 



4.2 
7.5 
6.7 
3.4 
6.9 
6.5 
2.2 



332 



173 



67 



138 



5.5 
2.6 
4.9 
3.7 
0.4 
3.7 
6.6 
6.1 
2.6 



5.3 
3.6 
3.9 



333 



149 



135 



111 



5.5 




2.5 




4.9 




5.5 


96 6.5 


2.8 


+ 6.5 


4.7 


- 0.7 


2.9 


79 6.0 


2.0 


+ 5.9 


2.0 


+ 1.1 


6.1 


69 12.7 


5.7 


+ 11.9 


2.2 


+ 4.6 



82 9.0 


86 


9.5 
























+ 8.9 


+ 


9.5 
























+ 1.2 


+ 


0.7 
























92 9.0 


101 


7.7 


107 8.1 


79 


4.2 


56 


2.5 














+ 9.0 


+ 


7.6 


+ 7.8 


+ 


4.1 


+ 


2.1 














- 0.3 


— 


1.5 


- 2.4 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


1.4 














84 5.9 


90 


8.7 
























+ 5.9 


+ 


8.7 
























+ 0.6 




0.0 
























91 8.7 


120 


6.3 


80 14.2 






















+ 8.7 


+ 


5.5 


+14.0 






















- 0.2 


- 


0.3 


+ 2.5 






















116 5.4 


116 


8.0 


104 6.0 


104 


3.0 


104 


3.5 


165 


3.5 


165 


3.5 


165 3.5 


165 3.5 


+ 4.8 


+ 


7.2 


+ 5.8 


+ 


2.9 


+ 


3.4 


+ 


0.9 


+ 


0.9 


+ 0.9 


+ 0.9 


- 2.4 


- 


3.5 


- 1.4 


- 


0.7 


— 


0.8 


— 


3.4 


— 


3.4 


- 3.4 


- 3.4 


82 3.0 


81 


2.8 


55 5.8 


77 


5.6 


58 


7.2 


44 


6.9 


83 


7.3 


88 4.8 


88 4.8 


+ 3.0 


+ 


2.8 


+ 4.8 


+ 


5.5 


+ 


6.1 


+ 


4.8 


+ 


7.2 


+ 4.8 


+ 4.8 


+ 0.4 


+ 


0.4 


+ 3.3 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


5.0 


+ 


0.9 


+ 0.2 


+ 0.2 


Heigh 


t s 


i n 


t i 1 o m 


e t e 


r a 


















8.5 


9. 


D 


9.5 


10 


.0 


10 


.5 


11 


.0 


11 


.5 


12.0 


12.5 



°or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/3ec °or m/sec °or m/sec 



19 



Table ? —Upper-wind components determined from pilot-balloon 









Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind 




No. 


Dal 


e 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


com- 
ponent 


Surface 


0.25 


0.. 


50 


0. 


75 


1.0 




1928 


hour 


o 







° or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


° or m/3ec 


or m/sec 


21 


Dec 


1 


13.4 


29.4 S 


114.7 


Total 


45 


4.0 


21 3.9 


46 


3.8 


53 


2.9 


52 


2.5 














E 


+ 


2.8 


+ 1.4 


+ 


2.7 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


2.0 














N 


+ 


2.8 


+ 3.6 


+ 


2.6 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


1.5 


22 


Dec 


2 


13.2 


30.7 S 


114.2 


Total 


45 


4.0 


35 4.8 


34 


5.8 


34 


5.9 


40 


7.4 














£ 


+ 


2.8 


+ 2.8 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


3.3 


+ 


4.8 














N 


+ 


2.8 


+ 3.9 


+ 


4.8 


+ 


4.9 


+ 


5.7 


23 


Dec 


4 


16.7 


31.0 S 


109.5 


Total 


270 


9.4 


292 10.7 


289 


11.7 


289 


LI. 3 


287 


L0.4 














E 


- 


9.4 


- 9.9 


- 


Ll.l 


- 


10.7 


_ 


LO.O 














N 




0.0 


+ 4.0 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


3.7 


+ 


3.0 


24 


Dec 


5 


14.2 


28.6 S 


108.7 


Total 


292 


6.7 


274 10.8 


265 


LI. 4 


254 


Ll.l 


















E 


- 


6.2 


-10.8 


- 


LI. 4 


- 


L0.7 


















N 


+ 


2.5 


+ 0.8 


- 


1.0 


- 


3.1 






25 


Dec 


13 


14.1 


28.4 S 


109.2 


Total 


90 


6.7 


83 6 .-3 


81 


5.6 


66 


4.8 


74 


4.6 














E 


+ 


6.7 


+ 6.3 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


4.4 


+ 


4.4 














N 




0.0 


+ 0.8 


+ 


0.9 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


1.3 


26 


Dec 


17 


14.9 


31.7 S 


109.2 


Total 


135 


6.7 




125 


5.6 


115 


4.6 


110 


2.0 














E 


+ 


4.7 




+ 


4.6 


+ 


4.2 


+ 


1.9 














N 


- 


4.7 




- 


3.2 


- 


1.9 


- 


0.7 


27 


Dec 


18 


13.5 


32.0 S 


108.8 


Total 


22 


6.7 


2 6.1 


3 


7.0 


355 


5.6 


309 


2.2 














E 


+ 


2.5 


+ 0.2 


+ 


0.4 


_ 


0.5 


_ 


1.7 














N 


+ 


6.2 


+ 6.1 


+ 


7.0 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


1.4 


28 


Dec 


20 


16.6 


34.3 S 


106.5 


Total 


45 


4.0 


61 5.8 


48 


4.1 


5 


4.1 


353 


3.7 














E 


+ 


2.8 


+ 5.1 


+ 


3.0 


+ 


0.4 


- 


0.4 














N 


+ 


2.8 


+ 2.8 


+ 


2.7 


+ 


4.1 


+ 


3.7 


29 


Dec 


26 


13.4 


40.4 S 


97.5 


Total 


11 


0.9 


346 4.1 


335 


5.1 


328 


5.0 


324 


4.0 














E 


+ 


0.2 


- 1.0 


- 


2.2 


- 


2.6 


- 


2.4 














N 


+ 


0.9 


+ 4.0 


+ 


4.6 


+ 


4.2 


+ 


3.2 


30 


Dec 


30 


16.7 


34.0 S 


91.4 


Total 
E 
N 


124 

+ 


6.7 
5.6 
3.8 




131 

+ 


6.7 
5.1 
4.4 


138 

+ 


5.3 
3.6 
3.9 








1929 




























31 


Jan 


1 


14.3 


32.2 S 


89.0 


Total 
E 


-- 


0.0 

0.0 




193 


0.2 

0.0 


192 


0.2 

0.0 


200 


0.5 

0.2 














N 




0.0 




- 


0.2 


- 


0.2 


- 


0.5 


32 


Jan 


4 


10.7 


31.8 S 


87.3 


Total 


315 


3.2 


280 5.0 


276 


5.8 


279 


4.9 


296 


2.4 














E 


- 


1.6 


- 4.9 


- 


5.8 


- 


4.8 


- 


2.2 














N 


+ 


1.6 


+ 0.9 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


1.0 


33 


Jan 


5 


11.0 


31.1 S 


86.6 


Total 


270 


4.0 


253 6.5 


234 


7.0 


223 


6.1 


214 


5.4 














E 


_ 


4.0 


- 6.2 


- 


5.7 


_ 


4.2 


_ 


3.0 














N 




0.0 


- 1.9 


- 


4.1 


_ 


4.5 


- 


4.5 


34 


Jan 


8 


16.6 


24.8 S 


82.1 


Total 


146 


6.7 


151 6.5 


152 


6.7 


158 


6.0 


164 


5.1 














E 


+ 


3.8 


+ 3.2 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


1.4 














N 


_ 


5.6 


- 5.7 


- 


5.9 


- 


5.6 


- 


4.9 


35 


Jan 


12 


13.9 


16.5 S 


78.6 


Total 


146 


6.7 


142 8.4 


138 


8.0 


128 


7.8 


150 


8.1 














E 


+ 


3.8 


+ 5.2 


+ 


5.4 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


4.0 














N 


- 


5.6 


- 6.6 


- 


6.0 


- 


4.8 


- 


7.0 


36 


Jan 


13 


10.6 


14.2 8 


78.0 


Total 


135 


6.7 


120 8.6 


120 


8.0 


122 


4.1 


306 


1.1 














E 


+ 


4.7 


+ 7.4 


+ 


6.9 


+ 


3.5 


- 


0.9 














N 


- 


4.7 


- 4.3 


- 


4.0 


- 


2.2 


+ 


0.6 


3? 


Feb 


5 


12.2 


12.1 S 


77.2 


Total 
E 


360 


1.5 

0.0 


35 2.8 
+ 1.6 


35 

+ 


3.0 
1.7 


35 

+ 


3.9 
2.2 


















N 


+ 


1.5 


+ 2.3 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


3.2 






38 


Feb 


6 


8.9 


12.0 S 


78.6 


Total 


169 


6.7 


157 7.0 


147 


7.2 


121 


6.5 


















E 


+ 


1.3 


+ 2.7 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


5.6 


















N 


- 


6.6 


- 6.4 


- 


6.0 


- 


3.4 








Date 


Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


6. 





6.5 


7. 





7. 


5 


8. 







1928 


hour 





o 




° or 


m/sec 


or m/sec 


° or 


m/sec 


° or 


m/sec 


or 


m/sec 


21 


Dec 


1 


13.4 


29.4 S 


114.7 


Total 


162 


1.6 


158 1.5 


158 


1.5 


134 


2.6 


142 


2.6 














E 


+ 


0.5 


+ 0.6 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


1.9 


+ 


1.6 














N 


_ 


1.5 


- 1.4 


- 


1.4 


_ 


1.8 


- 


2.0 


26 


Dec 


17 


14.9 


31.7 S 


109.2 


Total 


211 


2.2 


207 2.0 


200 


1.8 


204 


1.5 


212 


2.0 














E 


_ 


1.1 


- 0.9 


- 


0.6 


_ 


0.6 


- 


1.1 














N 


_ 


1.9 


- 1.8 


- 


1.7 


_ 


1.4 


- 


1.7 


29 


Dec 


26 


13.4 


40.4 S 


97.5 


Total 


279 


2.6 


306 2.2 


331 


3.2 


304 


3.5 


315 


7.7 














E 


- 


2.6 


- 1.8 


- 


1.6 


- 


2.9 


- 


5.4 














N 


+ 


0.4 


+ 1.3 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


5.4 




1929 




























34 


Jan 


8 


16.6 


24.8 S 


82.1 


Total 


246 


11.9 


266 8.9 


264 


7.0 


252 


19.0 


















E 


- 


10.9 


- 8.9 


- 


7.0 


- 


18.1 


















N 


- 


4.8 


- 0.6 


- 


0.7 


- 


5.9 







20 



flights made on the Carnegie, Pacific Ocean, 1938-1929— Continued 



































H e 


1 g h 


t 8 


1 n 


k 1 


Ion 


e t 


9 r s 


















1. 


5 


2. 


D 


2. 


5 


3.( 


3 


3. 


5 


4. 





4.. 


5 


5.0 


5.5 


°or 


n/sec 


°or 


n/sec 


°or m/sec 


or m/sec 


or m/sec 


or 


m/sec 


or m/sec 


or m/sec 


"or m/sec 


52 


2.5 


54 


3.6 


53 


4.9 


101 . 


3.0 


66 


2.9 


57 


3.3 


54 


1.5 


168 3.2 


104 1.6 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


2.9 


+ 


3.5 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


2.6 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


1.2 


+ 0.7 


4- 1.6 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


2.1 


+ 


2.6 


_ 


0.4 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


0.9 


- 3.1 


- 0.4 


54 


2.3 


15 


4.8 


359 


5.6 






















+ 


1.9 


+ 


1.2 


- 


0.1 






















+ 


1.4 


+ 


4.6 


+ 


5.6 






















265 


11.4 
































11.4 






























— 


1.0 






























82 


3.3 


101 


4.6 


108 


4.8 


135 


2.8 


217 


2.2 


288 


2.4 


285 


2.5 






+ 


3.3 


+ 


4.5 


+ 


4.6 


+ 


2.0 


- 


1.3 


- 


2.3 


- 


2.4 






+ 


0.5 


_ 


0.9 


_ 


1.5 


_ 


2.0 


- 


1.8 


+ 


0.7 


+ 


0.6 














240 


5.5 


252 


5.5 


258 


3.3 


218 


2.7 


215 


1.1 


211 1.6 


211 2.0 










- 


4.8 


- 


5.2 


- 


3.2 


- 


1.7 


- 


0.6 


- 0.8 


- 1.0 










_ 


2.8 


_ 


1.7 


- 


0.7 


_ 


2.1 


_ 


0.9 


- 1.4 


- 1.7 


265 


7.0 


298 


9.8 


300 


9.3 


302 


10.6 


306 


10. 1 


302 


11.0 










- 


7.0 


- 


8.6 


_ 


8.0 


- 


9.0 


- 


8.2 


- 


9.3 










~ 


0.6 


+ 


4.6 


+ 


4.6 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


5.9 


+ 


5.8 










321 


2.0 


327 


2.2 


320 


3.1 


313 


3.6 


338 


6.2 


318 


7.4 


317 


4.1 


328 2.9 


392 3.0 


- 


1.3 


_ 


1.2 


- 


2.0 


- 


2.6 


- 


2.3 


- 


5.0 


- 


2.8 


- 1.5 


- 2.8 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


5.8 


+ 


5.5 


+ 


3.0 


+ 2.5 


+ 1.1 






240 


5.0 


213 


6.0 


226 


4.3 


229 


4.3 


225 


6.0 


225 


8.0 


222 3.5 


220 5.5 






_ 


4.3 


_ 


3.3 


- 


3.1 


- 


3.2 


_ 


4.2 


- 


5.7 


- 2.3 


- 3.5 






- 


2.5 


- 


5.0 


- 


3.0 


- 


3.8 


- 


4.2 


- 


5.7 


- 3.6 


- 4.2 


251 


0.5 


115 


3.0 


115 


4.0 


118 


5.0 


134 


8.7 


196 


4.4 










_ 


0.5 


+ 


2.7 


+ 


3.6 


+ 


4.4 


+ 


6.3 


- 


1.2 










- 


0.'2 


- 


1.3 


_ 


1.7 


- 


2.4 


- 


6.0 


- 


4.2 










311 


4.1 


340 


6.0 


308 


4.2 


41 


1.7 


115 


3.1 


256 


1.5 


315 


6.0 


310 10.0 




- 


3.1 


- 


2.0 


- 


3.3 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


1.9 


- 


1.5 


- 


4.3 


- 7.7 




+ 


2.7 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


2.6 


+ 


1.3 


_ 


0.9 


_ 


0.4 


+ 


4.3 


+ 6.4 




186 


6.8 


181 


9.8 


185 


8.4 


204 


5.9 


216 


5.5 














- 


0.7 


- 


0.2 


- 


0.7 


- 


2.4 


_ 


3.2 














- 


6.8 


- 


9.8 


_ 


8.4 


- 


5.4 


- 


4.4 














191 


5.7 


319 


5.2 


186 


5.0 


182 


6.2 


180 


6.2 


182 


11.3 


192 


8.3 


335 6.8 


231 6.1 


- 


1.1 


- 


3.3 


_ 


0.5 


- 


0.2 




0.0 


_ 


0.4 


_ 


1.7 


- 4.8 


- 4.7 


- 


5.6 


- 


4.0 


- 


5.0 


- 


6.2 


- 


6.2 


- 


11.3 


_ 


8.0 


- 4.8 


- 3.8 


147 


5.8 


97 


2.3 


69 


2.6 


115 


4.2 


116 


6.0 


127 


8.5 


154 


9.2 






+ 


3.2 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


5.4 


+ 


6.8 


+ 


4.0 






- 


4.9 


- 


0.3 


+ 


0.9 


_ 


1.8 


_ 


3.6 


_ 


5.1 


_ 


8.3 






314 


5.8 


336 


15.7 


342 


15.7 






















- 


4.2 


_ 


6.4 


- 


4.8 






















+ 


4.0 


+ 


14.3 


+ 


14.9 























Heigh 


t s in 


k 1 1 n 


e t e r b 












8.5 


9.0 


9.5 


10.0 


10.5 


11.0 


11.5 


12.0 


12.5 


or m/sec 


or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


or m/sec 


or m/sec 


or m/sec 


or m/sec 


or m/sec 


or m/sec 


224 3.3 


202 2.9 


136 4.6 


162 5.0 


158 5.1 


155 4.0 








- 2.3 


- 1.1 


+ 3.2 


+ 1.6 


+ 1.9 


+ 1.7 








- 2.4 


- 2.7 


- 3.3 


- 4.8 


- 4.7 


- 3.6 








187 0.8 


189 1.4 


204 2.0 


164 2.0 


196 3.0 


174 1.4 


174 1.0 


174 1.0 




- 0.1 


- 0.2 


- 0.8 


+ 0.6 


- 0.8 


+ 0.2 


+ 0.1 


+ 0.1 




- 0.8 


- 1.4 


- 1.8 


- 1.9 


- 2.9 


- 1.4 


- 1.0 


- 1.0 




323 5.0 


317 6.1 


314 4.9 














- 3.0 


- 4.2 


- 3.5 














+ 4.0 


+ 4.5 


+ 3.4 















21 



Table 7 —Upper-wind components determined from pilot-balloon 







Local 


Position 


Wind 




No. 


Date 


appar - 

ent 
time 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


com- 
ponent 


Surface 


0. 


25 


0. 


50 


0. 


75 


1. 







1929 


hour 


o 


o 




"or 


m/sec 


° or 


m/sec 


°or 


m/sec 


or 


m/sec 


° or 


m/sec 


39 


Feb 7 


8.3 


10.4 S 


79.8 


Total 


158 


4.0 


144 


7.4 


154 


6.4 


156 


4.6 


190 


1.5 












E 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


4.4 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


1.9 




0.3 












N 


- 


3.7 


- 


6.0 


- 


5.8 


_ 


4.2 




1.5 


40 


Feb 8 


14.2 


10.0 s 


82.4 


Total 
E 

N 


191 


6.7 
1.3 

6.6 


188 


9.0 
1.2 
8.9 


195 


8.4 
2.2 
8.1 










41 


Feb 8 


15.9 


10.0 s 


82.5 


Total 


197 


6.7 


176~ 


6.0 


178 


5.2 


183 


3.6 


185 


3.3 












E 


_ 


2.0 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.2 


_ 


0.2 




0.3 












N 


_ 


6.4 


- 


6.0 


_ 


5.2 


- 


3.6 




3.3 


42 


Feb 8 


17.8 


10.0 s 


82.7 


Total 


208 


6.7 


186 


5.3 


178 


5.7 


185 


4.9 


196 


5.0 












E 


- 


3.2 


- 


0.6 


+ 


0.2 


- 


0.4 




1.4 












N 


- 


5.9 


- 


5.3 


- 


5.7 


- 


4.9 




4.8 


43 


Feb 9 


13.5 


10.5 S 


84.3 


Total 


158 


2.2 


150 


3-.0 


167 


2.9 


177 


1.7 


286 


0.4 












E 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


0.1 




0.4 












N 


- 


2.0 


- 


2.6 


- 


2.8 


- 


1.7 


4 


0.1 


44 


Feb 11 


17.1 


10.7 S 


86.2 


Total 


190 


2.2 


158 


4.8 


159 


3.3 


209 


1.8 


274 


1.5 












£ 


- 


0.4 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


1.2 


_ 


0.9 




1.5 












N 


- 


2.2 


- 


4.5 


- 


3.1 


- 


1.6 


4 


0.1 


45 


Feb 12 


14.5 


11.2 S 


87.7 


Total 


180 


6.7 


154 


6.1 


151 


5.9 


141 


5.5 


149 


5.7 












£ 




0.0 


+ 


2.7 


+ 


2.9 


+ 


3.5 


4 


2.9 












N 


- 


6.7 


- 


5.5 


- 


5.2 


- 


4.3 




4.9 


46 


Feb 13 


13.2 


12.6 S 


89.9 


Total 


180 


9.4 


154 


8.3 


130 


7.6 


109 


6.6 


92 


6.8 












£ 




0.0 


+ 


3.6 


+ 


5.8 


+ 


6.2 


4 


6.8 












N 


- 


9.4 


_ 


7.5 


- 


4.9 


_ 


2.2 




0.2 


47 


Feb 14 


15.1 


14.6 S 


92.6 


Total 


174 


6.7 


144 


7.3 


141 


7.1 


147 


5.7 


148 


5.2 












£ 


+ 


0.7 


+ 


4.3 


+ 


4.5 


+ 


3.1 


4 


2.8 












N 


- 


6.7 


- 


5.9 


- 


5.5 


_ 


4.8 




4.4 


48 


Feb 15 


15.6 


15.7 S 


95.3 


Total 


158 


6.7 


130 


9.0 


124 


10.1 


123 


10.7 


112* 


11.0 












£ 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


6.9 


+ 


8.4 


+ 


9.0 


4 


10.2 












N 


- 


6.2 


- 


5.8 


_ 


5.6 


- 


5.8 




4.1 


49 


Feb 16 


16.5 


15.2 S 


98.2 


Total 


135 


6.7 


113 


10.9 


107 


11.9 


103 


13.1 


99 


13.1 












£ 


+ 


4.7 


+ 


10.0 


+ 


11.4 


+ 


12.8 


+ 


12.9 












N 


- 


4.7 


- 


4.3 


- 


3.5 


- 


3.0 




2.0 


50 


Feb 17 


14.1 


14.7 S 


101.1 


Total 


135 


6.7 


117 


12.2 


112 


13.1 


104 


12.9 


100 


13.0 












£ 


+ 


4.7 


+ 


10.9 


+ 


12.2 


+ 


12.5 


4 


12.8 












N 


_ 


4.7 


_ 


5.5 


_ 


4.9 


- 


3.1 




2.3 


51 


Feb 17 


14.6 


14.7 S 


101.2 


Total 


135 


9.4 


[117 


10.9] 


[114 


11.1] 


102 


10.5 


94" 


10.3 












£ 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


9.7 


+ 


10.1 


+ 


10.3 


+ 


10.3 












N 


- 


6.6 


- 


5.0 


- 


4.5 


_ 


2.2 


- 


0.7 


52 


Feb 18 


13.3 


14.3 S 


103.5 


Total 


124 


6.7 


110 


7.7 


104 


9.0 


103 


11.1 


104 


11.8 












£ 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


7.2 


+ 


8.7 


+ 


10.8 


+ 


11.4 












N 


- 


3.8 


- 


2.6 


- 


2.2 


- 


2.5 


- 


2.8 


53 


Feb 19 


17.9 


13.5 S 


106.4 


Total 


123 


6.7 


130 


9.0 


130 


10.0 


121 


10.4 


Ill 


11.7 












£ 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


6.9 


+ 


7.7 


+ 


8.9 


+ 


10.9 












N 


- 


3.7 


_ 


5.8 


- 


6.4 


- 


5.4 


- 


4.2 


54 


Feb 20 


16.4 


12.9 S 


108.5 


Total 


112 


4.0 


105 


8.0 


105 


8.6 


106 


8.0 


106 


7.3 












£ 


+ 


3.7 


+ 


7.7 


+ 


8.3 


+ 


7.7 


+ 


7.0 












N 


- 


1.5 


- 


2.1 


- 


2.2 


- 


2.2 


- 


2.0 




Date 


Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


6.1 


D 


6. 


5 


7. 





7. 


5 


8. 







1929 


hour 


o 


o 




or m/sec 


or 


n/sec 


° or 


a/sec 


° or 


m/sec 


or 


m/sec 


43 


Feb 9 


13.5 


10.5 S 


84.3 


Total 
£ 
N 


191 


L6.4 

3.1 

L6.1 


















45 


Feb 12 


14.5 


11.2 S 


87.7 


Total 
£ 
N 


80 

+ 
+ 


5.4 
5.3 
0.9 


103 

+ 


9.0 
8-8 
2.0 










290 

4- 


9.0 
8.5 
3.1 


46 


Feb 13 


13.2 


12.6 S 


89.9 


Total 


91 


9.2 


105 


3.2 


123 


5.3 


127 


6.8 


128 


6.1 












£ 


+ 


9.2 


+ 


3.1 


+ 


4.4 


+ 


5.4 


+ 


4.8 












N 


- 


0.2 


_ 


0.8 


- 


2.9 


- 


4.1 


- 


3.8 


47 


Feb 14 


15.1 


14.6 S 


92.6 


Total 


54 


6.5 


67 


4.8 


70 


4.3 


41 


3.7 


350 


6.0 












£ 


+ 


5.3 


+ 


4.4 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


2.4 


- 


1.0 












N 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


1.9 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


5.9 


51 


Feb 17 


14.6 


14.7 S 


101.2 


Total 
£ 
N 


294 

+ 


9.4 
8.6 
3.8 


285 

+ 


11.3 

10.9 

2.9 














53 


Feb 19 


17.9 


13.5 S 


106.4 


Total 
£ 

N 


210 


7.0 
3.5 
6.1 


210 


7.0 
3.5 

6.1 















22 



flights made on the Carnegie , Pacific Ocean, 1928-1929 — Continued 



Heights in kilometers 



1.5 



2.0 



2.5 



3.0 



3.5 



4.0 



4.5 



5.0 



5.5 



°or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec 'or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec 

299 4.8 311 3.1 [279 0.5] [279 0.5] [358 0.5] 

- 4.2 - 2.3 - 0.5 - 0.5 O.C 

+ 2.3 + 2.0 + 0.1 + 0.1 + 0.5 



337 3.0 


294 6.0 


275 4.0 


- 1.2 


- 5.5 


- 4.0 


+ 2.8 


+ 2.4 


+ 0.4 



192 4.4 


263 


2.5 


290 


2.0 
























- 0.9 


- 


2.5 


_ 


1.9 
























- 4.3 


_ 


0.3 


+ 


0.7 
























214 5.6 


[252 


3.1] 


[287 


2.4] 


[283 


2.0] 


[275 


3.6] 
















- 3.1 


_ 


3.0 


- 


2.3 


- 


2.0 


- 


3.6 
















- 4.6 


_ 


1.0 


+ 


0.7 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.3 
















322 4.9 


302 


8.1 


312 


7.1 


266 


7.4 


254 


10. 


271 


6.3 


256 


8.4 


220 


7.5 


216 5.0 


- 3.0 




6.9 


_ 


5.3 


_ 


7.4 


- 


9.6 


- 


6.3 


- 


8.2 


- 


4.8 


- 2.9 


+ 3.9 


+ 


4.3 


+ 


4.8 


_ 


0.5 


- 


2.8 


+ 


0.1 


- 


2.0 


- 


5.8 


- 4.0 


321 3.0 


269 


4.0 


254 


7.3 


254 


7.5 


[245 


7.5] 
















- 1.9 


_ 


4.0 


_ 


7.0 


- 


7.2 


- 


6.8 
















+ 2.3 


_ 


0.1 


_ 


2.0 


- 


2.1 


- 


3.2 
















215 3.2 


272 


5.9 


221 


5.4 


25 


1.5 


15 


7.2 


32 


9.4 


24 


L0.2 


40 


11.4 


50 11.4 


- 1.8 


_ 


5.9 


_ 


3.5 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


1.9 


+ 


5.0 


+ 


4.2 


+ 


7.3 


+ 8.7 


- 2.6 


+ 


0.2 


_ 


4.1 


+ 


1.4 


+ 


7.0 


+ 


8.0 


+ 


9.3 


+ 


8.7 


+ 7.3 


122 6.3 


64 


5.6 


61 


3.3 


97 


1.9 


59 


3.6 


61 


4.5 


59 


10.9 


64 


11.0 


58 7.8 


+ 5.3 


+ 


5.0 


+ 


2.9 


+ 


1.9 


+ 


3.1 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


9.3 


+ 


9.9 


+ 6.6 


- 3.3 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


1.6 


- 


0-2 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


4.8 


+ 4.1 


136 5.1 


128 


6.1 


135 


4.9 


116 


3.5 


95 


1.0 


70 


2.3 


51 


9.6 


79 


3.5 


80 0.6 


+ 3.5 


+ 


4.8 


+ 


3.5 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


7.5 


+ 


3.4 


+ 0.6 


- 3.7 


_ 


3.8 


_ 


3.5 


_ 


1.5 


- 


0.1 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


6.0 


+ 


0.7 


+ 0.1 


101 9.5 


111 


6.7 


134 


5.1 


152 


5.7 


180 


4.2 


222 


2.6 












+ 9.3 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


3.7 


+ 


2.7 




0.0 


- 


1.7 












- 1.8 


- 


2.4 


— 


3.5 


— 


5.0 


■" 


4.2 


- 


1.9 












91 10.3 


92 


8.2 


97 


7.9 
























+10.3 


+ 


8.2 


+ 


7.8 
























- 0.2 


_ 


0.3 


_ 


1.0 
























85 8.9 


97 


7.4 


112 


6.1 


50 


3.0 


15 


1.0 


323 


2.8 


[305 


4.0] 


[295 


3.9] 


[290 6.5] 


+ 8.9 


+ 


7.3 


+ 


5.7 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


0.3 


- 


1.7 


- 


3.3 


- 


3.5 


- 6.1 


+ 0.8 


_ 


0.9 


_ 


2.3 


+ 


1.9 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


1.6 


+ 2.2 


121 8.4 


157 


6.0 


173 


3.7 


177 


3.1 


188 


4.0 


197 


5.2 


231 


3.1 








+ 7.2 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.2 


- 


0.6 


- 


1.5 


- 


2.4 








- 4.3 


_ 


5.5 


_ 


3.7 


_ 


3.1 


_ 


4.0 


- 


5.0 


- 


2.0 








126 12.4 


128 


8.6 


180 


6.6 


148 


2.0 


140 


2.0 


165 


2.0 


209 


2.0 


203 


2.0 


[204 3.5] 


+10.0 


+ 


6.8 




0.0 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


0.5 


- 


1.0 


- 


0.8 


- 1.4 


- 7.3 




5.3 




6.6 




1.7 




1.5 




1.9 




1.8 




1.8 


- 3.2 


Heigh 


t s 


i n 


k 1 


1 11 


e t 


3 r s 




















8.5 


9.1 


3 


9.. 


5 


10 


.0 


10 


.5 


11 


.0 


11 


.5 


12 


.0 


12.5 



° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec 



304 14.5 329 16.8 348 18.7 



-12.0 - 8.6 
+ 8.1 +14.4 
172 7.0 
+ 1.0 

— 6 9 

290 S.? 280 4.0 

- 5.4 - 3.9 
+ 2.0 + 0.7 



- 3.9 
+18.3 



23 



Table 7 — Upper-wind components determined from pilot-balloon 









Local 
appar- 


Position 


Wind 




No. 


Dat 


e 




Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


com- 




























ent 
time 


Lati- 
tude 


ponent 


Surface 


0.25 


0.50 


0.75 


1.0 




1929 


hour 





o 




° or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


55 


Feb 


21 


15.0 


12.6 S 


110.4 


Total 


101 


6.7 


98 


9.3 


96 


9.7 


94 : 


L0.3 


98 ] 


L0.7 














E 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


9.2 


+ 


9.7 


+ 


L0.3 


+: 


L0.6 














N 


- 


1.3 


- 


1.3 


_ 


1.0 


- 


0.7 


_ 


1.5 


56 


Feb 


22 


13.9 


12.6 S 


112.6 


Total 


101 


6.7 


85 


9.2 


84 


9.8 


84 


9.9 


86 . 


LI. 2 














E 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


9.2 


+ 


9.8 


+ 


9.8 


+: 


LI. 2 














N 


- 


1.3 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


0.8 


57 


Feb 


23 


14.4 


12.5 S 


115.5 


Total 


102 


6.7 


99 


LI. 2 


95 


L1.0 


90 ' 


L1.0 


95 : 


L0.9 














E 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


Ll.l 


+ 


11. 


+ 


L1.0 


+ 


L0.9 














N 


- 


1.4 


- 


1.8 


- 


1.0 




0.0 


_ 


1.0 


58 


Feb 


24 


13.7 


12.7 S 


117.7 


Total 


79 


4.0 


61 


7.6 


65 


7.9 


62 


7.9 


65 


7.2 














E 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


7.2 


+ 


7.0 


+ 


6.5 














N 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


3.7 


+ 


3.3 


+ 


3.7 


+ 


3.0 


59 


Feb 


25 


16.8 


13.0 S 


119.8 


Total 


101 


6.7 


71 


7.7 


71 


7.9 


74 


9.0 


88 


8.8 














E 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


7.3 


+ 


7.5 


+ 


8.6 


+ 


8.8 














N 


_ 


1.3 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


2.6 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


0.3 


60 


Feb 


26 


14.8 


13.1 S 


121.6 


Total 


101 


6.7 


93 


8.4 


90 


9.0 


90 


9.0 


[ 90 


8.7] 














E 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


8.4 


+ 


9.0 


+ 


9.0 


+ 


8.7 














N 


_ 


1.3 


- 


0.4 




0.0 




0.0 




0.0 


61 


Feb 


27 


10.3 


13.3 S 


124.0 


Total 


101 


9.4 


87 


L0.7 


91 


10.8 


89 


8.2 


82 


7.3 














E 


+ 


9.2 


+ 


10.7 


+ 


10.8 


+ 


8.2 


+ 


7.2 














N 


- 


1.8 


+ 


0.6 


_ 


0.2 


+ 


0.1 


+ 


1.0 


62 


Mar 


1 


10.4 


16.4 S 


128.0 


Total 


101 


4.0 


72 


6.6 


74 


7.8 


70 


9.4 


71 


9.0 














E 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


6.3 


+ 


7.5 


+ 


8.8 


+ 


8.5 














N 


- 


0.8 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


2.9 


63 


Mar 


2 


13.3 


17.0 S 


129.9 


Total 


90 


6.7 


86 


7.8 


94 


8.2 


93 


8.2 


81 


6.2 














E 


+ 


6.7 


+ 


7.8 


+ 


8.2 


+ 


8.2 


+ 


6.1 














N 




0.0 


+ 


0.5 


_ 


0.6 


- 


0.4 


+ 


1.0 


64 


Mar 


3 


10.8 


17.1 S 


131.6 


Total 


101 


4.0 


98 


5.0 


99 


5.7 


93 


6.2 


81 


5.9 














E 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


5.C 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


5.8 














N 


- 


0.8 


_ 


0.7 


_ 


0.9 


_ 


0.3 


+ 


0.9 


65 


Mar 


4 


13.4 


17.2 S 


133.4 


Total 


101 


4.0 


93 


5.9 


92 


6.3 


82 


6.1 


66 


6.2 














E 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


5.9 


+ 


6.3 


+ 


6.0 


+ 


5.7 














N 


- 


0.8 


- 


0.3 


_ 


0.2 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


2.5 


66 


Mar 


5 


13.2 


17.1 S 


135.5 


Total 


124 


4.0 


79 


5.7 


88 


6.2 


87 


5.8 


62 


5.0 














E 


+ 


3.3 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


5.8 


+ 


4.4 














N 


- 


2.2 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


0.2 


+ 


0.3 


+ 


2.4 


67 


Mar 


6 


14.8 


17.2 S 


136.9 


Total 


56 


0-9 


19 


1.0 


5 


1.0 


353 


1.2 


4 


1.5 














E 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


0.3 


+ 


0.1 


- 


0.2 


+ 


0.1 














N 


+ 


0.5 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.5 


68 


Mar 


7 


14.0 


17.4 S 


139.1 


Total 


56 


0.0 


107 


2.1 


101 


2.2 


102 


2.1 


101 


2.4 














E 




0.0 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


2.4 














N 




0.0 


- 


0.6 


- 


0.4 


- 


0.4 


- 


0.5 


69 


Mar 


10 


13.8 


18.0 S 


144.2 


Total 


34 


1.6 


51 


3.8 


51 


3.9 


54 


4.2 


54 


3.7 














E 


+ 


0.9 


+ 


3.0 


+ 


3.0 


+ 


3.4 


+ 


3.0 














N 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


2.2 


70 


Mar 


11 


17.5 


18.2 S 


146.3 


Total 


326 


2.2 


336 


4.8 


329 


5.2 


312 


5.0 


310 


5.2 














E 


- 


1.2 


- 


2.0 


- 


2.7 


- 


3.7 


- 


4.0 














N 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


4.4 


+ 


4.5 


+ 


3.4 


+ 


3.3 




Date 


Local 
appar- 
ent 

time 


Position 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


6. 


D 


6. 


5 


7. 


3 


7. 


5 


8. 


D 




1929 


hour 





o 




"or 


n/sec 


°or 


n/sec 


° or 


m/sec 


° or 


n/sec 


"or 


n/sec 


55 


Feb 


21 


15.0 


12.6 S 


110.4 


Total 
E 
N 


224 


2.7 
1.9 

1.9 


[268 


3.8] 

3.8 

0.1 














59 


Feb 


25 


16.8 


13.0 S 


119.8 


Total 
E 
N 


281 

+ 


1.0 

1.0 
0.2 


286 

+ 


7.6 
7.3 
2.1 


291 

+ 


9.9 
9.2 
3.6 










62 


Mar 


1 


10.4 


16.4 S 


128.0 


Total 

E 
N 


344 

+ 


6.3 
1.7 
6.1 


















63 


Mar 


2 


13.3 


17.0 S 


129.9 


Total 
E 
N 


302 

+ 


11.3 
9.6 
6.0 


298 

+ 


9.8 
8.6 
4.6 














64 


Mar 


3 


10.8 


17.1 S 


131.6 


Total 


277 


8.8 


291 


6.5 


313 


4.5 


357 


5.0 


317 


4.0 














E 


- 


8.7 


- 


6.1 


- 


3.3 


- 


0.3 


- 


2.7 














N 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


3.1 


+ 


5.0 


+ 


2.9 


66 


Mar 


5 


13.2 


17.1 S 


135.5 


Total 


232 


5.0 


234 


5.3 


249 


3.0 


207 


0.8 


[190 


1.0] 














E 


- 


3.9 


- 


4.3 


- 


2.8 


- 


0.4 


- 


0.2 














N 


- 


3.1 


- 


3.1 


- 


1.1 


- 


0.7 


- 


1.0 



24 



flights made on the Carnegie. Pacific Ocean, 1928-1929— Continued 





































H e 


i g h 


t s 


1 n 


k i 


Ion 


e t i 


3 r s 




















1.5 


2.0 


2.. 




3.( 


D 


3.5 


4.0 


4.5 


5.0 


5.5 


°or m/sec 


8 or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


114 1 


L0.6 


225 


3.4 


290 


5.2 


305 


7.0 


326 


8.3 


333 


8.0 


341 


6.1 


257 


1.8 


[219 2.5] 


+ 


9.7 


_ 


2.4 


_ 


4.9 


- 


5.7 


- 


4.6 


- 


3.6 


- 


2.0 


- 


1.8 


- 1.6 


_ 


4.3 


_ 


2.4 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


6.9 


+ 


7.1 


+ 


5.8 


- 


0.4 


- 1.9 


114 


8.4 


121 


6.6 


358 


1.0 


328 


2.8 


12 


4.0 
















+ 


7.7 


+ 


5.7 




0.0 


- 


1.5 


+ 


0.8 
















_ 


3.4 


_ 


3.4 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


3.9 
















101 


LO.l 
































+ 


9.9 




























• 




_ 


1.9 
































81 


5.0 
































+ 


4.9 
































+ 


0.8 
































67 


8.5 


79 


7.1 


99 


6.9 


75 


6.4 


[ 30 


0.9] 


[ 45 


0.9] 


[ 45 


0.9] 


40 


0.7 


328 0.6 


+ 


7.8 


+ 


7.0 


+ 


6.8 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


0.4 


- 0.3 


+ 


3.3 


+ 


1.4 


— 


1.1 


+ 


1.7 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


0.5 


+ 0.5 


69 


6.7 


58 


9.5 


77 


7.9 


55 


9.1 


55 


6.0 


55 


5.9 


55 


8.2 








+ 


6.2 


+ 


8.1 


+ 


7.7 


+ 


7.4 


+ 


4.9 


+ 


4.8 


+ 


6.7 








+ 


2.4 


+ 


5.0 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


5.2 


+ 


3.4 


+ 


3.4 


+ 


4.7 








73 


7.6 


71 


7.0 


56 


6.8 


22 


9.4 


7 


9.1 


344 


7.6 


345 


6.5 


338 


8.8 


327 8.9 


+ 


7.3 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


3.5 


+ 


1.1 


- 


2.1 


- 


1.7 


- 


3.3 


- 4.8 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


8.7 


+ 


9.0 


+ 


7.3 


+ 


6.3 


+ 


8.2 


+ 7.5 


64 


5.8 


69 


5.7 


76 


6.5 


93 


3.7 


12 


3.4 


340 


1.0 


319 


1.0 


315 


7.0 


295 7.3 


+ 


5.2 


+ 


5.3 


+ 


6.3 


+ 


3.7 


+ 


0.7 


- 


0.3 


- 


0.7 


- 


5.0 


- 6.6 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


1.6 


_ 


0.2 


+ 


3.3 


+ 


0.9 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


5.0 


+ 3.1 


72 


7.6 


101 


6.7 


110 


6.4 


105 


4.2 


27 


2.8 


332 


2.1 


298 


4.2 


266 


6.6 


273 9.4 


+ 


7.2 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


6.0 


+ 


4.1 


+ 


1.3 


- 


1.0 


- 


3.7 


- 


6.6 


- 9.4 


+ 


2.4 


- 


1.3 


- 


2.2 


- 


1.1 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


2.0 


- 


0.5 


+ 0.5 


51 


6.9 


75 


6.4 


107 


4.4 


162 


5.5 


183 


8.0 
















+ 


5.4 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


1.7 


- 


0.4 
















+ 


4.3 


+ 


1.7 


_ 


4.2 


_ 


5.2 


_ 


8.0 
















69 


4.1 


84 


4.0 


85 


1.6 


122 


2.3 


211 


1.7 


232 


5.6 


218 


8.5 


249 


8.9 


231 7.4 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


2.0 


- 


0.9 


- 


4.4 


- 


5.2 


_ 


8.3 


- 5.8 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.1 


_ 


1.2 


_ 


1.5 


_ 


3.4 


_ 


6.7 


_ 


3.2 


- 4.7 


22 


1.2 


160 


2.0 


207 


2.5 
























+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.7 


- 


1.1 
























+ 


1.1 


_ 


1.9 


_ 


2.2 
























45 


2.0 


107 


3.1 


126 


3.9 


156 


4.7 


224 


4.8 


214 


4.8 


221 


2.7 


210 


1.6 


210 2.2 


+ 


1.4 


+ 


3.0 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


1.9 


- 


3.3 


- 


2.7 


- 


1.8 


- 


0.8 


- 1.1 


+ 


1.4 


- 


0.9 


- 


2.3 


- 


4.3 


- 


3.4 


- 


4.0 


_ 


2.0 


_ 


1.4 


- 1.9 


50 


1.8 
































+ 


1.4 
































+ 


1.2 
































H e 


i g h 


t s 


i n 


k 1 


1 o m e t 


a r s 




















8. 


5 


9. 


3 


9. 


5 


10 


.0 


10 


.5 


11 


.0 


11 


.5 


12 


.0 


12.5 



° or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec 



180 



4.2 


11 2.9 


[103 4.0] 




+ 0.2 


+ 0.6 


+ 3.9 




+ 4.2 


+ 2.8 


- 0.9 




5.8 


159 5.5 


150 9.5 


172 6.2 


0.0 


+ 2.0 


+ 4.8 


+ 0.9 


- 5.8 


- 5.1 


- 8.2 


- 6.5 



25 



Table 7 — Upper-wind components determined from pilot-balloon 





Date 


Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long, 
west 


Surface 


0. 


25 


0. 


50 


0.75 


1.0 










of Gr. 




















1929 


hour 


o 


e 




°or m/sec 


° or 


u/sec 


° or 


a/sec 


"or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


71 


Mar 12 


16.1 


17.8 3 


148.4 


Total 


326 4.0 


10 


5.0 


14 


5.9 


9 5.3 


27 5.6 












E 


- 2.2 


+ 


0.9 


+ 


1.4 


+ 0.8 


+ 2.5 












N 


+ 3.3 


+ 


4.9 


+ 


5.7 


+ 5.2 


+ 5.0 


72 


Mar 22 


13.3 


17.6 S 


151.8 


Total 


[315 2.2] 


314 


7.3 


302 


8.6 


305 10.6 


313 11.2 












E 


- 1.5 


- 


5.2 


- 


7.3 


- 8.7 


- 8.2 












H 


+ 1.5 


+ 


5.1 


+ 


4.6 


+ 6.1 


+ 7.6 


73 


Mar 23 


13.4 


17.1 S 


152.8 


Total 


56 0.9 


346 


2.8 


337 


2.3 


335 1.7 


334 3.2 












E 


+ 0.8 


- 


0.7 


- 


0.9 


- 0.7 


- 1.4 












N 


+ 0.5 


+ 


2.7 


+ 


2.1 


+ 1.5 


+ 2.9 


74 


Mar 24 


10.4 


16.9 S 


153.6 


Total 


112 4.0 


132 


6.1 


116 


4.4 


98 5.0 


78 6.7 












E 


+ 3.7 


+ 


4.5 


+ 


4.0 


+ 5.0 


+ 6.6 












N 


- 1.5 


- 


4.1 


- 


1.9 


- 0.7 


+ 1.4 


75 


Mar 25 


13.8 


16.5 S 


156.2 


Total 


90 6.7 


94 


IB. 6 


93 


9.5 


92 8.8 


71 9.0 












E 


+ 6.7 


+ 


8.6 


+ 


9.5 


+ 8.8 


+ 8.5 












N 


0.0 


- 


0.6 


- 


0.5 


- 0.3 


+ 2.9 


76 


Mar 27 


11.7 


15.7 S 


160.6 


Total 


56 6.7 


55 


8.2 


57 


8.3 


52 9.1 


47 8.9 












E 


+ 5.6 


+ 


6.7 


+ 


7.0 


+ 7.2 


+ 6.5 












N 


+ 3.8 


+ 


4.7 


+ 


4.5 


+ 5.6 


+ 6.1 


77 


Mar 28 


13.3 


15.5 8 


162.1 


Total 


56 2.2 


15 


3.0 


29 


3.0 


34 3.3 


34 3.0 












E 


+ 1.8 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


1.4 


+ 1.8 


+ 1.7 












N 


+ 1.2 


+ 


2.9 


+ 


2.6 


+ 2.7 


+ 2.5 


78 


Mar 29 


13.3 


15.2 S 


163.5 


Total 


-- 0.0 


[130 


0-6] 


[130 


0.6] 


[130 0.6] 


[130 0.6] 












E 


0.0 


+ 


0.5 


+ 


0.5 


+ 0.5 


+ 0.5 












N 


0.0 


- 


0.4 


- 


0.4 


- 0.4 


- 0.4 


79 


Mar 30 


15.6 


14.7 S 


166.1 


Total 


191 2.2 


86 


1.6 


20 


2.4 


10 2.6 


11 2.0 












E 


- 0.4 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


0.8 


+ 0.4 


+ 0.4 












N 


- 2.2 


+ 


0.1 


+ 


2.3 


+ 2.6 


+ 2.0 


80 


Mar 31 


13.2 


14.7 8 


168.0 


Total 


110 4.0 


357 


4.9 


1 


4.2 


359 3.6 


353 3.2 












E 


+ 3.8 


- 


0.3 


+ 


0.1 


- 0.1 


- 0.4 












N 


- 1.4 


+ 


4.9 


+ 


4.2 


+ 3.6 


+ 3.2 


81 


Apr 1 


15.1 


14.4 S 


170.3 


Total 


326 4.0 


23 


4.5 


14 


3.2 


7 2.9 


358 2.2 












E 


- 2.2 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


0.8 


+ 0.4 


- 0.1 












N 


+ 3.3 


+ 


4.1 


+ 


3.1 


+ 2.9 


+ 2.2 


82 


Apr 22 


13.8 


12.6 S 


171.6 


Total 


112 6.7 


109 


5.7 


105 


4.6 


94 4.5 


90 4.5 












E 


+ 6.2 


+ 


5.4 


+ 


4.4 


+ 4.5 


+ 4.5 












N 


- 2.5 


_ 


1.9 


- 


1.2 


- 0.3 


0.0 


83 


Apr 23 


13.6 


11.2 S 


171.5 


Total 


158 6.7 


138 


9.2 


143 


9.2 


136 7.8 


119 5.9 












E 


+ 2.5 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


5.5 


+ 5.4 


+ 5.2 












N 


- 6.2 


_ 


6.8 


_ 


7.4 


- 5.6 


- 2.9 


84 


Apr 24 


16.7 


8.4 S 


171.2 


Total 


68 2.2 


63 


4.7 


66 


4.3 


77 6.1 


89 6.2 












E 


+ 2.0 


+ 


4.2 


+ 


3.9 


+ 5.9 


+ 6.2 












N 


+ 0.8 


+ 


2.1 


+ 


1.8 


+ 1.4 


+ 0.1 


85 


Apr 25 


14.3 


7.5 S 


171.9 


Total 


-- 0.0 


143 


2.2 


142 


1.7 


119 1.3 


110 1.7 












E 


0.0 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


1.0 


+ 1.1 


+ 1.6 












N 


0.0 


- 


1.8 


- 


1.3 


- 0-6 


- 0.6 


86 


Apr 25 


16.2 


7.3 S 


171.9 


Total 


56 1.5 


120 


1.8 


Ill 


2.0 


86 2.1 


81 1.7 












E 


+ 1.2 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


1.9 


+ 2.1 


+ 1.7 












N 


+ 0.8 


- 


0.9 


- 


0.7 


+ 0.2 


+ 0.3 




Date 


Local 
appar - 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind- 

com- 

ponent 




Ho. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long, 
west 


6.0 


6.. 




7.0 


7.5 


8.0 










of Gr. 




















1929 


hour 


e 


o 




° or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


or m/sec 


or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


74 


Mar 24 


10.4 


16.9 S 


153.6 


Total 


42 3.0 


17 


4.0 


9 


8.8 


359 10.0 


359 10.0 












E 


+ 2.0 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.4 


- 0.2 


- 0.2 












N 


+ 2.2 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


8.7 


+10.0 


+10.0 


77 


Mar 28 


13.3 


15.5 S 


162.1 


Total 


325 0.5 


222 


1.6 


207 


3.2 


121 5.7 


165 5.2 












E 


- 0.3 


- 


1.1 


- 


1.4 


+ 4.9 


+ 1.4 












N 


+ 0.4 


- 


1.2 


- 


2.8 


- 2.9 


- 5.0 


78 


Mar 29 


13.3 


15.2 S 


163.5 


Total 

E 
N 


152 4.4 
+ 2.1 
- 3.9 














79 


Mar 30 


15.6 


14.7 8 


166.1 


Total 
E 
N 


194 2.4 

- 0.6 

- 2.3 


244 


3.0 

2.7 
1.3 


290 

+ 


5.8 
5.4 
2.0 






80 


Mar 31 


13.2 


14.7 S 


168.0 


Total 
E 
N 


296 2.6 
- 2.3 
+ 1.1 


324 

+ 


3.1 
1.8 

2.5 










86 


Apr 25 


16.2 


7.3 S 


171.9 


Total 


159 5.8 


167 


5.7 


177 10 


218 10.0 














E 


+ 2.1 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


0.5 


- 6.2 














N 


- 5.4 


- 


5.6 


-10.1 


- 7.9 





26 



flights made on the Carnegie, Pacific Ocean, 1938-1929 — Continued 







































H e 


i g h 


t s 


1 n 


k 1 


Lorn 


e t e 


r s 






















1. 


5 


2. 


3 


2. 


5 


3.0 


3. 


5 


4.0 


4. 


5 


5.( 


D 


5.5 


'or 


n/sec 


°or i 


n/sec 


°or m/sec 


° or i 


n/sec 


or m/sec 


° or m/3ec 


°or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


352 


2.8 


35 


2.2 


46 


2.0 


201 


1.0 


193 


2.1 


190 


5.1 


192 


6.1 










_ 


0.4 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


1.4 


- 


0.4 


- 


0.5 


- 


0.9 


- 


1.3 










+ 


2.8 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


1.4 


- 


0.9 


- 


2.0 


- 


5.0 


- 


6.0 










318 


10.1 


316 


Ll.l 


314 


7.0 


298 


6.0 






















_ 


6.8 


- 


7.7 


- 


5.0 


- 


5.3 






















+ 


7.5 


+ 


8.0 


+ 


4.9 


+ 


2.8 






















353 


5.1 


355 


4.6 


5 


3.4 


28 


3.1 


348 


3.7 


333 


1.4 


329 


2.5 


327 


4.7 


335 


5.0 




0.7 


_ 


0.4 


+ 


0.3 


+ 


1.5 


- 


0.8 


- 


0.6 


- 


1.3 


- 


2.6 


- 


2.1 


+ 


5.0 


+ 


4.6 


+ 


3.4 


+ 


2.7 


+ 


3.6 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


2.1 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


4.5 


51 


5.4 


50 


6.6 


34 


5.8 


56 


5.7 


74 


5.0 


81 


4.4 


48 


4.1 


60 


3.6 


60 


2.8 


+ 


4.2 


+ 


5.1 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


4.7 


+ 


4.8 


+ 


4.4 


+ 


3.0 


+ 


3.1 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


3.4 


+ 


4.2 


+ 


4.8 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


1.4 


+ 


0.7 


+ 


2.7 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


1.4 


89 


7.1 


98 


6.7 






























+ 


7.1 


+ 


6.6 






























+ 


0.1 


- 


0.9 






























57 


7.5 


60 


7.0 


97 


5.8 


87 


5.0 






















+ 


6.3 


+ 


6.1 


+ 


5.8 


+ 


5.0 






















+ 


4.1 


+ 


3.5 


- 


0.7 


+ 


0.3 






















56 


2.7 


123 


1.8 


130 


1.8 


130 


1.8 


304 


1.5 


315 


1.5 


315 


1.5 


315 


1.5 


325 


0.5 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


1.4 


+ 


1.4 


- 


1.2 


- 


1.1 


- 


1.1 


- 


1.1 


- 


0.3 


+ 


1.5 


_ 


1.0 


_ 


1.2 


_ 


1.2 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


0.4 


[206 


0.8] 


[187 


0.8] 


154 


1.1 


107 


1.9 


118 


2.0 


109 


2.0 


131 


2.9 


141 


4.2 


148 


4.8 


_ 


0.4 


_ 


0.1 


+ 


0.5 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


1.9 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


2.6 


+ 


2.5 


_ 


0.7 


_ 


0.8 


_ 


1.0 


_ 


0.6 


- 


0.9 


- 


0.6 


- 


1.9 


- 


3.3 


- 


4.1 


20 


2.6 


35 


2.0 


61 


2.5 


80 


3.0 


70 


4.0 


85 


1.4 


189 


1.5 


193 


1.9 


186 


1.0 


+ 


0.9 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


3.0 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


1.4 


- 


0.2 


- 


0.4 


- 


0.1 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


0.5 


+ 


1.4 


+ 


0.1 


- 


1.5 


- 


1.8 


- 


1.0 


25 


3.8 


21 


2.8 


55 


1.3 


35 


1.7 


35 


1.3 


55 


1.5 


55 


1.5 


220 


2.0 


341 


1.6 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.2 


- 


1.3 


- 


0.5 


+ 


3.4 


+ 


2.6 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


1.4 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


0.9 


+ 


0.9 


- 


1.5 


+ 


1.5 


15 


2.5 


357 


2.0 


40 


1.4 


























+ 


0.6 


- 


0.1 


+ 


0.9 


























+ 


2.4 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


1.1 


























90 


3.6 


































+ 


3.6 

0.0 


































164 


5.5 


150 


4.0 


94 


4.6 


120 


3.2 


111 


3.9 


116 


1.0 


226 


1.5 


351 


5.9 


12 


5.0 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


4.6 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


3.6 


+ 


0.9 


- 


1.1 


- 


0.9 


+ 


1.0 


_ 


5.3 


_ 


3.5 


_ 


0.3 


_ 


1.6 


_ 


1.4 


- 


0.4 


- 


1.0 


+ 


5.8 


+ 


4.9 


99 


7.6 


98 


8.2 


102 


8.7 


110 


7.1 


140 


8.0 


















+ 


7.5 


+ 


8.1 


+ 


8.5 


+ 


6.7 


+ 


5.1 


















- 


1.2 


~ 


1.1 


• 


1.8 


— 


2.4 


~ 


6.1 


















81 


1.8 


73 


4.0 


73 


4.0 


73 


4.0 


73 


4.0 


83 


3.1 


85 


1.1 


120 


1.9 


159 


1.0 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


3.1 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.3 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.1 


- 


1.0 


- 


0.9 


H e 


1 g h 


t 8 


1 n 


k 1 


Lorn 


e t e 


r s 






















8. 


5 


9.0 


9. 


5 


10 


.0 


10 


.5 


11 


.0 


11 


.5 


12 


.0 


12 


.5 



° or m/sec "or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec 



174 5.9 [ 60 2.9] [358 2.4] [153 3.2] 124 8.4 135 6.0 111 10.6 
+ 0.6 + 2.5 - 0.1 + 1.4 + 7.0 + 4.2 +9.9 
- 5.9 + 1.4 + 2.4 - 2.8 - 4.7 - 4.2 - 3.8 



133 12.9 113 11.3 
+ 9.4 +10.4 
- 8.8 - 4.4 



27 



Table 



-Upper-wind-components determined from pilot-balloon 





Da1 


,3 


Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


Surface 


0. 


35 


0.50 


0.75 


1.0 




1929 


hour 


o 


o 




'or m/seo 


'or 


n/sec 


° or m/sec 


° or m/seo 


or m/sec 


87 


Apr 


26 


16.8 


6.4 S 


173.4 


Total 


34 


0.9 


392 


2.0 


291 2.3 


383 3.0 


102 0.3 














E 


+ 


0.5 


- 


1.8 


- 2.2 


- 2.0 


+ 0.3 














N 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


0.8 


+ 0.8 


+ 0.4 


- 0-1 


88 


Apr 


27 


10.8 


5.2 S 


173.4 


Total 


360 


0.9 


97 


0.6 


70 1.7 


56 3.1 


57 2.5 














E 




0.0 


+ 


0.6 


+ 1.6 


+ 2.6 


+ 2.1 














N 


+ 


0.9 


- 


0.1 


+ 0.6 


+ 1.7 


+ 1.4 


89 


Apr 


28 


16.7 


3.4 S 


173.8 


Total 


68 


4.0 


63 


5.2 


75 5.9 


88 5.5 


104 6.3 














E 


+ 


3.7 


+ 


4.6 


+ 5.7 


+ 5.5 


+ 6.1 














N 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


2.4 


+ 1.5 


+ 0.3 


- 1.5 


90 


Apr 


29 


10.8 


1.8 S 


173.5 


Total 


90 


6.7 


8° 


7.5 


89 8.2 


91 9.9 


90 11.7 














E 


+ 


6.7 


+ 


7.5 


+ 8.2 


+ 9.9 


+11.7 














N 




0.0 


+ 


0.4 


+ 0.1 


- 0.2 


0-0 


91 


Apr 


30 


13.3 


0.5 N 


174.1 


Total 


90 


9.4 


96 


7.5 


92 11.4 


91 15.0 


96 14.7 














E 


+ 


9.4 


+ 


7.5 


+11.4 


+ 15.0 


+14.6 














N 




0.0 


- 


0.8 


- 0.4 


- 0.3 


- 1.5 


92 


May 


4 


16.9 


8.5 N 


179.3 


Total 


34 


9.4 


49 


9.8 


52 7.7 


61 8.8 


72 8.8 














E 


+ 


5.3 


+ 


7.4 


+ 6.1 


+ 7.7 


+ 8.4 














N 


+ 


7.8 


+ 


6.4 


+ 4.7 


+ 4.3 


+ 2.7 


93 


May 


5 


13.8 


9.5 N 


179.8 


Total 


79 


10. 8 


73 


12.3 


75 13.4 


73 13.7 
















E 


+ 


10. 6 


+ 


11.7 


+12.9 


+13.1 
















N 


+ 


2.1 


+ 


3.8 


+ 3.5 


+ 4.0 




94 


May 


7 


13.6 


13.6 N 


182.8 


Total 


79 


9.4 


59 


13.7 


61 13.2 


67 13.3 


80 15.8 














E 


+ 


9.2 


+ 


11.7 


+ 11.5 


+12.2 


+15.6 














N 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


7.1 


+ 6.4 


+ 5.2 


+ 2.7 


95 


May 


9 


13.6 


16.6 N 


188.4 


Total 


79 


9.4 


80 


10.2 


87 11.9 


88 11.4 


86 10.8 














E 


+ 


9.2 




10.0 


+11.9 


+11.4 


+10.8 














N 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


1.8 


+ 0.6 


+ 0.4 


+ 0.8 


S6 


May 


13 


10.9 


20.2 N 


198.8 


Total 


68 


6.7 


59 


7.7 


67 7.9 


73 7.2 


79 6.8 














E 


+ 


6.3 


+ 


6.6 


+ 7.3 


+ 6.9 


+ 6.7 














N 


+ 


3.5 


+ 


4.0 


+ 3.1 


+ 2.1 


+ 1.3 


97 


May 


14 


13.7 


19.4 N 


201.8 


Total 


112 


9.4 


100 


10.0 


97 9.9 


101 9.1 


103 8.0 














E 


+ 


8.7 


+ 


9.8 


+ 9.8 


+ 8.9 


+ 7.8 














N 


- 


3.5 


- 


1.7 


- 1.2 


- 1.7 


- 1.8 


98 


May 


15 


13.2 


18.6 N 


204.1 


Total 


124 


6.7 


105 


8.5 


103 8.7 


107 9.7 


108 9.8 














E 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


8.2 


+ 8.5 


+ 9.3 


+ 9.3 














N 


- 


3.8 


- 


3.2 


- 2.0 


- 2.8 


- 3.0 


99 


May 


16 


11.3 


17.5 N 


206.5 


Total 


112 


6.7 


102 


7.3 


106 8.2 


114 8.7 


110 9.0 














E 


+ 


6.3 


+ 


7.1 


+ 7.9 


+ 8.0 


+ 8.5 














N 


- 


3.5 


- 


1.5 


- 2.3 


- 3.5 


- 3.1 


100 


May 


17 


13.2 


16.1 N 


209.3 


Total 


112 


9.4 


96 


9.2 


103 10.6 


103 10.6 


103 10.6 














E 


+ 


8.7 


+ 


9.2 


+ 10.3 


+10.3 


+10-3 














N 


- 


3.5 


- 


1.0 


- 2.4 


- 2.4 


- 2.4 


101 


May 


19 


15.4 


13.9 N 


214.4 


Total 


79 


4.0 


84 


6.8 


84 7.0 


86 6.5 


81 5.9 














E 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


6.8 


+ 7.0 


+ 6.5 


+ 5.8 














N 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


0.7 


+ 0.7 


+ 0.4 


+ 0.9 


102 


May 


26 


13.4 


16.2 N 


215.9 


Total 


79 


6.7 


93 


6.1 


100 8.4 


104 9.0 


104 7.7 














E 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


6.1 


+ 8.3 


+ 8.7 


+ 7.5 














N 


+ 


1.3 


- 


0.3 


- 1.5 


- 2.2 


- 1.9 


103 


May 


27 


13.6 


18.7 N 


216.0 


Total 


79 


6.7 


85 


8.8 


87 8.5 


93 8.4 


98 8.8 














E 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


8.8 


+ 8.5 


+ 8.4 


+ 8.7 














N 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


0.8 


+ 0.4 


- 0.4 


- 1.2 


104 


May 


28 


15.4 


21.8 N 


215.8 


Total 


101 


4.0 


121 


5.3 


126 5.6 


124 5.8 


131 7.3 














E 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


4.5 


+ 4.5 


+ 4.8 


+ 5.4 














N 


- 


0.8 


- 


2.7 


- 3.3 


- 3.2 


- 4.7 




Date 


Local 

appar - 

ent 


Position 


Wind 
com- 




No. 


Lati- 


Long. 






















time 


tude 


west 
of Gr. 


ponent 


6.1 


D 


6. 


5 


7.0 


7.5 


8.0 




1929 


hour 


o 


o 




or m/sec 


or 


n/sec 


° or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


89 


Apr 


28 


16.7 


3.4 S 


172.8 


Total 


121 


5.9 


123 


14.9 


127 12.0 


130 11.1 
















E 


+ 


5.1 


+ 


12.6 


+ 9.6 


+ 8.5 
















N 


- 


3.0 


- 


7.9 


- 7.3 


- 7.1 




96 


May 


13 


10.9 


30.2 N 


198.8 


Total 


143 


3.9 


97 


4.4 


68 4.3 


47 4.4 
















E 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


4.4 


+ 4.0 


+ 3.2 
















N 


- 


3.1 


- 


0.5 


+ 1.6 


+ 3.0 




97 


May 


14 


13.7 


19.4 N 


201.8 


Total 
E 
N 


95 

+ 


5.6 
5.6 

0.5 


86 

+ 
+ 


4.7 
4.7 

0.3 


79 4.7 

+ 4.6 
+ 0.9 






104 


May 


28 


15.4 


21.8 N 


215.8 


Total 


147 


3.0 


147 


3.0 


147 3.0 


147 3.0 
















E 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


1.6 


+ 1.6 


+ 1.6 
















N 


- 


3.5 


- 


2.5 


- 3.5 


- 2.5 





28 



flights made on the Carnegie, Pacific Ocean, 1928-1929 — Continued 































Heigh 


t s 


i n 


k i 


lorn 


e t e 


r s 
















1.5 


2. 


D 


2. 


5 


3. 


D 


3. 


5 


4.0 


4.5 


5.1 


D 


5.5 


°or m/sec 


°or 


m/sec 


°or 


m/sec 


6 or 


n/sec 


° or 


n/sec 


or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


or 


n/sec 


°or m/sec 


50 1.2 


50 


0.6 


50 


0.6 


158 


1.1 


141 


3.4 


182 2.0 


166 1.6 


150 


1.6 


150 1.6 


+ 0.9 


+ 


0.5 


+ 


0.5 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


2.1 


- 0.1 


+ 0.4 


+ 


0.8 


+ 0.8 


+ 0.8 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.4 


- 


1.0 


- 


2.6 


- 2.0 


- 1.6 


- 


1.4 


- 1.4 


67 4.5 


59 


4.6 


94 


1.8 




















+ 4.1 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


1.8 




















+ 1.8 


+ 


2.4 


- 


0.1 




















95 4.6 


82 


5.2 


90 


4.6 


175 


3.7 


206 


3.5 


219 1.3 


170 2.7 


221 


1.0 


66 1.8 


+ 4.6 


+ 


5.2 


+ 


4.6 


+ 


0.3 


- 


1.5 


- 0.8 


+ 0.5 


- 


0.7 


+ 1.6 


- 0.4 


+ 


0.7 




0.0 


- 


3.7 


- 


3.2 


- 1.0 


- 2.7 


- 


0.8 


+ 0.7 


89 11.8 


82 


9.8 
























+11.8 


+ 


9.7 
























+ 0.2 


+ 


1.4 
























110 14.7 




























+13.8 




























- 5.0 




























78 6.0 


80 


6.0 


78 


6.5 


66 


7.9 


75 


5.0 


90 5.0 


90 4.0 








+ 5.9 


+ 


5.9 


+ 


6.4 


+ 


7.2 


+ 


4.8 


+ 5.0 


+ 4.0 








+ 1.2 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


1.4 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


1.3 


0.0 


0.0 








74 13.8 




























+13.3 




























+ 3.8 




























95 12.9 




























+12.8 




























- 1.1 




























111 6.4 


120 


6.8 


130 


6.4 


136 


6.9 


129 


7.0 


150 8.0 


152 8.3 


152 


8.3 


152 8.4 


+ 6.0 


+ 


5.9 


+ 


4.9 


+ 


4.8 


+ 


5.4 


+ 4.0 


+ 3.9 


+ 


3.9 


+ 3.9 


- 2.3 


- 


3.4 


- 


4.1 


- 


5.0 


- 


4.4 


- 6.9 


- 7.3 


- 


7.3 


- 7.4 


106 7.5 


102 


5.0 


125 


5.0 


112 


8.0 


112 


8.0 


128 8.5 


110 7.3 


109 


7.0 


116 8.4 


+ 7.2 


+ 


4.9 


+ 


4.1 


+ 


7.4 


+ 


7.4 


+ 6.7 


+ 6.9 


+ 


6.6 


+ 7.6 


- 2.1 


- 


1.0 


_ 


2.9 


- 


3.0 


- 


3.0 


- 5.2 


- 2.5 


- 


2.3 


- 3.7 


107 9.1 


107 


9.1 


112 


8.0 


117 


9.2 


131 


8.0 


130 5.0 


130 5.0 


130 


5.0 


130 5.0 


+ 8.7 


+ 


8.7 


+ 


7.4 


+ 


8.2 


+ 


6.0 


+ 3.8 


+ 3.8 


+ 


3.8 


+ 3.8 


- 2.7 


_ 


2.7 


_ 


3.0 


- 


4.2 


- 


5.2 


- 3.2 


- 3.2 


- 


3.2 


- 3.2 


105 8.2 


126 


9.7 


123 


LI. 4 


129 


8.0 


137 


5.0 


137 5.0 


137 5.0 


137 


5.0 


137 5.0 


+ 7.9 


+ 


7.8 


+ 


9.6 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


3.4 


+ 3.4 


+ 3.4 


+ 


3.4 


+ 3.4 


- 2.1 


- 


5.7 


_ 


6.2 


- 


5.0 


- 


3.7 


- 3.7 


- 3.7 


- 


3.7 


- 3.7 


88 8.7 


88 


8.7 


101 


5.6 


84 


6.5 


84 


6.5 


84 6.5 


85 8.2 








+ 8.7 


+ 


8.7 


+ 


5.5 


+ 


6.5 


+ 


6.5 


+ 6.5 


+ 8.2 








+ 0.3 


+ 


0.3 


- 


1.1 


+ 


0.7 


+ 


0.7 


+ 0.7 


+ 0.7 








106 5.2 


113 


6.4 


105 


6.2 




















+ 5.0 


+ 


5.9 


+ 


6.0 




















- 1.4 


- 


2.5 


- 


1.6 




















117 7.3 


116 


5.1 


117 


6.6 


122 


7.8 
















+ 6.5 


+ 


4.6 


+ 


5.9 


+ 


6.6 
















- 3.3 


- 


2.2 


- 


3.0 


- 


4.1 
















100 7.7 


100 


7.7 


100 


7.7 


100 


7.7 


100 


7.7 


100 7.7 


100 7.7 


100 


7.7 




+ 7.6 


+ 


7.6 


+ 


7.6 


+ 


7.6 


+ 


7.6 


+ 7.6 


+ 7.6 


+ 


7.6 




- 1.3 


- 


1.3 


- 


1.3 


- 


1.3 


_ 


1.3 


- 1.3 


- 1.3 


_ 


1.3 




128 7.0 


146 


8.8 


104 


7.6 


106 


7.0 


99 


8.3 


107 5.7 


105 2.2 


108 


2.2 


147 3.0 


+ 5.5 


+ 


4.9 


+ 


7.4 


+ 


6.7 


+ 


8.2 


+ 5.4 


+ 2.1 


+ 


2.1 


+ 1.6 


- 4.3 


- 


7.3 


- 


1.8 


- 


1.9 


- 


1.3 


- 1.7 


- 0.6 


- 


0.7 


- 2.5 


Heigh 


t s 


1 n 


k i 


L o m 


e t e 


r s 
















8.5 


9.0 


S. 


5 


10 


.0 


10 


.5 


11.0 


11.5 


12 


.0 


12.5 


°or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


or i 


n/sec 


° or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


or m/sec 


"or m/sec 


"or i 


n/sec 


° or m/sec 



29 



Table 7 — Dpper-wlnd components determined from pilot-balloon 





Date 


Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Posi 


tlon 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long, 
west 


Surface 


0. 


25 


0. 


50 


0. 


75 


1.0 










of Gr. 
























1929 


hour 


o 







° or 


n/sec 


or 


m/sec 


° or 


n/sec 


or 


m/sec 


or m/sec 


105 


May 29 


13.2 


23.5 N 


215.9 


Total 


135 


6.7 


148 


7.7 


154 


8.5 


160 


8.6 


147 6.8 












E 


+ 


4.7 


+ 


4.1 


+ 


3.7 


+ 


2.9 


+ 3.7 












N 


- 


4.7 


- 


6.5 


- 


7.6 


. 


8.1 


- 5.7 


106 


May 30 


11.0 


25.2 N 


215.9 


Total 


158 


4.0 


175 


8.3 


185 


8.1 


191 


6.2 


202 7.3 












E 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


0.7 


- 


0.7 


- 


1.2 


- 2.7 












N 


- 


3.7 


- 


8.3 


- 


8.1 


- 


6.1 


- 6.8 


107 


Jun 1 


10.8 


28.4 N 


216.0 


Total 


169 


6.7 


178 


13.0 


185 


14.2 


183 


12.9 


187 12.9 












E 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


0.4 


- 


1.2 


_ 


0.7 


- 1.6 












N 


- 


6.6 


- 


13.0 


- 


14.2 


_ 


12.9 


-12.8 


108 


Jun 3 


13.3 


31.1 N 


215.8 


Total 


259 


6.7 


270 


8.5 


275 


8.8 


269 


8.1 


267 8.5 












E 


- 


6.6 


+ 


8.5 


- 


8.8 


- 


8.1 


- 8.5 












N 


- 


1.3 




0.0 


+ 


0.8 


- 


0.1 


- 0.4 


109 


Jun 3 


13.6 


31.2 N 


215.8 


Total 


259 


6.7 


275 


8.4 


275 


8.6 


267 


8.2 


278 7.8 












E 


- 


6.6 


- 


8.4 


- 


8.6 


- 


8.2 


- 7.7 












N 


- 


1.3 


+ 


0.7 


+ 


0.8 


- 


0.4 


+ 1.1 


110 


Jun 5 


15.9 


34.3 N 


219.1 


Total 


225 


6.7 


227 


6.4 


228 


5.8 


216 


6.4 














E 


- 


4.7 


- 


4.7 


- 


4.3 


- 


3.8 














N 


- 


4.7 


- 


4.4 


- 


3.9 


_ 


5.2 




111 


Jun 25 


16.5 


34.9 N 


218.8 


Total 


90 


4.0 


71 


6.6 


70 


6.0 


71 


3.8 


49 3.7 












E 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


3.6 


+ 2.8 












N 




0.0 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


1.2 


+ 2.4 


112 


Jun 26 


14.2 


36.1 N 


217.7 


Total 


135 


6.0 


183 


6.3 


204 


5.7 


223 


4.9 


230 4.7 












E 


+ 


4.2 


- 


0.3 


- 


2.3 


- 


3.3 


- 3.6 












N 


- 


4.2 


- 


6.3 


- 


5.2 


_ 


3.6 


- 3.0 


113 


Jun 27 


14.7 


36.7 N 


216.2 


Total 


202 


2.2 


245 


4.8 


255 


4.8 


252 


4.0 


236 3.0 












E 


- 


0.8 


- 


4.4 


- 


4.6 


_ 


3.8 


- 2.5 












N 


- 


2.0 


- 


2.0 


- 


1.2 


- 


1.2 


- 1.7 


114 


Jun 29 


13.6 


37.9 N 


214.5 


Total 


[101 


4.0] 


94 


4.9 


69 


4.4 


16 


4.0 


353 3.0 












E 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


4.9 


+ 


4.1 


+ 


1.1 


- 0.4 












N 


- 


0.8 


- 


0.3 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


3.8 


+ 3.0 


115 


Jun 30 


13.7 


38.2 N 


212.9 


Total 


135 


2.2 


164 


5.8 


198 


4.2 


223 


4.0 


233 3.9 












E 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


1.6 


- 


1.3 


- 


2.7 


- 3.1 












N 


- 


1.6 


- 


5.6 


- 


4.0 


- 


2.9 


- 2.4 


116 


Jul 1 


13.3 


38.8 N 


212.2 


Total 


124 


2.2 


116 


5.8 


94 


2.9 


60 


2.5 


52 3.4 












E 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


5.2 


+ 


2.9 


+ 


2.2 


+ 2.7 












N 


- 


1.8 


- 


2.5 


- 


0.2 


+ 


1.2 


+ 2.1 


117 


Jul 2 


14.0 


39.9 N 


210.4 


Total 


146 


4.0 


177 


4.2 


206 


2.9 


221 


2.9 


209 3.4 












E 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


0-2 


- 


1.3 


- 


1.9 


- 1.6 












N 


- 


3.3 


- 


4.2 


- 


2.6 


_ 


2.2 


- 3.0 


118 


Jul 3 


14.0 


40.4 N 


208.7 


Total 
E 
N 


[135 

+ 


4.0] 

2.8 

2.8 


187 


3.8 
0.5 
3.8 


198 


3.4 
1.0 

3.2 








119 


Jul 21 


14.0 


47.8 N 


142.4 


Total 


281 


12.1 


309 


13.9 


302 


14.3 


302 


12.6 


316 12.5 












E 


- 


11.9 


- 


10.8 


- 


12.1 


- 


10.7 


- 8.7 












N 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


8.8 


+ 


7.6 


+ 


6.7 


+ 9.0 


120 


Jul 21 


14.3 


47.8 N 


142.4 


Total 


281 


12.1 


306 


12.9 


308 


14.2 


311 


13.5 


315 13.0 












E 


- 


11.9 


- 


10.4 


- 


11.2 


- 


10.2 


- 9.2 












N 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


7.6 


+ 


8.7 


+ 


8.9 


+ 9.2 


121 


Jul 23 


13.3 


44.2 N 


137.5 


Total 


248 


6.7 


279 


10.3 


283 


9.6 


282 


8.2 


273 7.2 












E 


- 


6.2 


- 


10.2 


- 


9.4 


- 


8.0 


- 7.2 












N 


- 


2.5 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


1.7 


+ 0.4 


122 


Jul 26 


13.5 


39.5 N 


129.3 


Total 


34 


9.4 


6 


9.5 


4 


9.6 


4 


9.1 


3 7.5 












E 


+ 


5.3 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


0.7 


+ 


0.6 


+ 0.4 












N 


+ 


7.8 


+ 


9.4 


+ 


9.6 


+ 


9.1 


+ 7.5 


123 


Sep 8 


15.9 


31.4 N 


129.2 


Total 


331 


4.0 


1 


6.0 


8 


6.0 


10 


5.6 


12 5.3 












E 


- 


1.9 


+ 


0.1 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


1.0 


+ 1.1 












N 


+ 


3.5 


+ 


6.0 


+ 


5.9 


+ 


5.5 


+ 5.2 


124 


Sep 9 


11.1 


30.4 N 


130.8 


Total 


330 


4.0 


24 


6.1 


20 


6.1 


15 


6.8 


3 5.6 












E 


- 


2.C 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


2.1 


+ 


1.8 


+ 0.3 












N 


+ 


3.5 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


5.7 


+ 


6.6 


+ 5.6 




Date 


Local 
appar- 
ent 

time 


Position 


Wind- 

com- 

ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


6. 


D 


6. 


5 


7. 





7. 


5 


8.0 




1929 


hour 





o 




or 


n/sec 


°or 


m/sec 


°or 


m/sec 


°or 


m/sec 


° or m/sec 


114 


Jun 29 


13.6 


37.9 N 


214.5 


Total 

E 
N 


279 

+ 


4.1 
4.0 

0.6 


313 

+ 


4.5 
3.3 
3.1 












117 


Jul 2 


14.0 


39.9 N 


210.4 


Total 

E 
N 


348 

+ 


10.0 
2.1 
9.8 

















30 



flights made on the Carnegie, Pacific Ocean, 1928-1939 — Continued 





















H e i g b 


t s In 


k 1 1 o a 


e t e r s 












1.5 


2.0 


2.5 


3.0 


3.5 


4.0 


4.5 


5.0 


5.5 


'or m/sec 


or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


"or m/sec 


159 6.8 


164 6.8 


156 5.9 


156 4.8 


194 6.2 


241 5.9 


243 3.9 


264 3.7 




+ 2.4 


+ 1.9 


+ 2.4 


+ 2.0 


- 1.5 


- 5.2 


- 3.5 


- 3.7 




- 6.4 


- 6.5 


- 5.4 


- 4.4 


- 6.0 


- 2.9 


- 1.8 


- 0.4 




196 7.1 


213 9.8 


211 7.4 


223 8.9 


223 8.0 


223 6.5 


223 6.5 


223 6.5 


223 6.5 


- 2.0 


- 5.3 


- 3.8 


- 6.1 


- 5.5 


- 4.4 


- 4.4 


- 4.4 


- 4.4 


- 6.8 


- 8.2 


- 6.3 


- 6.5 


- 5.8 


- 4.8 


- 4.8 


- 4.8 


- 4.8 


191 13.4 


214 13.8 


215 12.0 


215 12.0 












- 2.6 


- 7.7 


- 6.9 


- 6.9 












-13.2 


-11.4 


- 9.8 


- 9.8 













50 


3.7 


20 


4.0 


340 


5.0 


343 


6.0 


343 


6.0 














+ 


2.8 


+ 


1.4 


- 


1.7 


- 


1.8 


- 


1.8 














+ 


2.4 


+ 


3.8 


+ 


4.7 


+ 


5.7 


+ 


5.7 














259 


4.3 






























- 


4.2 






























— 


0.8 






























309 


1.5 


69 


1.3 


92 


1.5 


48 


1.7 


40 


1.1 


291 


1.0 


247 


4.0 


241 4.0 


271 5.4 


- 


1.2 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


0.7 


- 


0.9 


- 


3.7 


- 3.5 


- 5.4 


+ 


0.9 


+ 


0.5 




0.0 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


0.4 


- 


1.6 


- 1.9 


+ 0.1 


211 


4.2 


204 


5.9 


160 


5.0 


116 


3.7 


64 


2.8 


69 


3.9 


49 


4.3 


19 5.5 


37 5.0 


_ 


2.2 


- 


2.4 


+ 


1.7 


+ 


3.3 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


3.6 


+ 


3.2 


+ 1.8 


+ 3.0 


- 


3.6 


- 


5.4 


- 


4.7 


_ 


1.6 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.4 


+ 


2.8 


+ 5.2 


+ 4.0 


101 


3.4 


90 


3.9 


71 


5.8 


41 


5.6 


















+ 


3.3 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


5.5 


+ 


3.7 


















- 


0.6 




0.0 


+ 


1.9 


+ 


4.2 


















186 


3.9 


160 


2.2 


132 


2.7 


19 


3.1 


10 


5.1 


11 


5.0 


351 


6.9 


346 11.8 


344 11.4 


- 


0.4 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


1.0 


+ 


0.9 


+ 


1.0 


- 


1.1 


- 2.8 


- 3.1 


— 


3.9 


- 


2.1 


— 


1.8 


+ 


2.9 


+ 


5.0 


+ 


4.9 


+ 


6.8 


+11.4 


+11.0 


306 


13.0 
































L0.5 






























+ 


7.6 






























276 


9.6 


277 


12.3 


























- 


9.6 




L2.2 


























+ 


1.0 


+ 


1.5 



























Heights In kilometers 



8.5 



9.0 



9.5 



10.0 



10.5 



11.0 



11.5 



12.0 



12.5 



° or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec 



31 



Table 7 — Upper-wind components determined from pilot-balloon 





Dal 


e 


Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


Surface 


0.25 


0.. 


50 


0.75 


1.0 




1929 


hour 


o 







° or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


or m/sec 


or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


125 


Sep 


9 


11.4 


30.4 N 


130.9 


Total 


330 


4.0 


18 


6.9 


25 


6.3 


22 


6.5 


16 


5.6 














E 


- 


2.0 


+ 


2.1 


+ 


2.7 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


1.5 














N 


+ 


3.5 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


5.7 


+ 


6.0 


+ 


5.4 


126 


Sep 


10 


16.0 


29.1 N 


132.9 


Total 


38 


4.0 


31 


4.8 


29 


5.8 


23 


7.5 


















E 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


2.9 


















N 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


4.1 


+ 


5.1 


+ 


6.9 






127 


Sep 


11 


15.4 


28.1 N 


134.5 


Total 


59 


2.2 


54 


4.8 


58 


4.2 


45 


3.9 


36 


3.9 














E 


+ 


1.9 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


3.6 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


2.3 














N 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


3.2 


128 


Sep 


12 


13.2 


27.7 N 


135.6 


Total 


172 


2.2 


179 


3.0 


175 


3.0 


171 


2.8 


159 


2.4 














£ 


+ 


0.3 




0.0 


+ 


0.3 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.9 














N 


- 


2.2 


- 


3.0 


- 


3.0 


_ 


2.8 


_ 


2.2 


129 


Sep 


13 


10.8 


27.0 N 


137.7 


Total 


126 


2.2 


127 


3.5 


124 


3.5 


128 


2.8 


134 


1.7 














E 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


2.9 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


1.2 














N 


- 


1.3 


- 


2.1 


- 


2.0 


_ 


1.7 


_ 


1.2 


130 


Sep 


14 


14.8 


26.7 N 


139.2 


Total 


-- 


0.0 


243 


1.8 


225 


2.0 


238 


2.2 


232 


1.6 














E 




o.c 


- 


1.6 


- 


1.4 


- 


1.9 


- 


1.3 














N 




0.0 


- 


0.8 


- 


1.4 


_ 


1.2 


_ 


1.0 


131 


Sep 


16 


14.0 


26.2 N 


142.2 


Total 


126 


4.0 


137 


4.6 


136 


3.9 


125 


2.6 


127 


2.3 














E 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


3.1 


+ 


2.7 


+ 


2.1 


+ 


1.8 














N 


- 


2.4 


- 


3.4 


- 


2.8 


_ 


1.5 


_ 


1.4 


132 


Sep 


16 


14.4 


26.2 N 


142.2 


Total 
E 
N 


126 

+ 


4.0 
3.2 
2.4 


132 

+ 


4.7 
3.5 
3.1 


141 

+ 


4.8 
3.0 
3.7 










133 


Sep 


16 


15.0 


26.2 N 


142.2 


Total 


126 


4.0 


142 


3.5 


137 


3.0 


149 


2.4 


149 


2.1 














E 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.1 














N 


- 


2.4 


- 


2.8 


- 


2.2 


- 


2.1 


_ 


1.8 


134 


Sep 


17 


13.7 


25.0 N 


143.8 


Total 


92 


4.0 


48 


5.8 


45 


5.7 


47 


6.0 


46 


6.1 














E 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


4.3 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


4.4 


+ 


4.4 














N 


- 


0.1 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


4.1 


+ 


4.2 


135 


Sep 


17 


14.7 


25.0 N 


143.8 


Total 


92 


4.0 


59 


5.4 


60 


5.9 


62 


6.7 


54 


7.8 














E 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


4.6 


+ 


5.1 


+ 


5.9 


+ 


6.3 














N 


- 


0.1 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


3.0 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


4.6 


136 


Sep 


18 


13.9 


24.0 N 


145.8 


Total 


68 


6.7 


72 


9.7 


72 


9.9 


76 


9.6 


89 


9.6 














E 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


9.2 


+ 


9.4 


+ 


9.3 


+ 


9.6 














N 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


3.0 


+ 


3.1 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


0.2 


137 


Sep 


20 


15.7 


22.8 N 


151.8 


Total 


91 


6.7 


92 


7.8 


93 


8.0 


97 


7.3 


96 


7.2 














E 


+ 


6.7 


+ 


7.8 


+ 


8.0 


+ 


7.2 


+ 


7.2 














N 


- 


0.1 


- 


0.3 


- 


0.4 


- 


0.9 


- 


0.8 


138 


Sep 


21 


14.0 


22.3 N 


153.8 


Total 


79 


2.2 


86 


7.9 


83 


7.3 


94 


5.6 


100 


4.8 














E 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


7.9 


+ 


7.2 


+ 


5.6 


+ 


4.7 














N 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


0.9 


_ 


0.4 


_ 


0.8 


139 


Sep 


22 


17.7 


21.6 N 


156.1 


Total 


101 


4.0 


96 


6.8 


101 


7.0 


109 


6.5 


106 


6.0 














E 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


6.8 


+ 


6.9 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


5.8 














N 


- 


0.8 


- 


0.7 


- 


1.3 


_ 


2.1 


_ 


1.6 


140 


Oct 


3 


15.3 


23.9 N 


159.7 


Total 


101 


9.4 


108 


7.5 


109 


7.8 


105 


7.5 


105 


7.4 














E 


+ 


9.2 


-t- 


7.1 


+ 


7.4 


+ 


7.2 


+ 


7.2 














N 


- 


1.8 


- 


2.3 


- 


2.5 


- 


1.9 


- 


1.9 


141 


Oct 


4 


15.5 


26.8 N 


160.6 


Total 


80 


9.4 


77 


7.5 


82 


8.1 


74 


8.9 


66 


9.7 














E 


+ 


9.3 


+ 


7.3 


+ 


8.0 


+ 


8.6 


+ 


8.9 














N 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


1.7 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


4.0 


142 


Oct 


5 


15.3 


29.5 N 


161.3 


Total 


80 


6.7 


74 


10. 2 


79 


9.7 


86 


10- 3 


86 


9.2 














E 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


9.8 


+ 


9.5 


+ 


L0.3 


+ 


9.2 














N 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


0.7 


+ 


0-6 


143 


Oct 


6 


11.1 


31.6 N 


161.0 


Total 


103 


4.0 


114 


7.6 


115 


6.8 


131 


6.8 


139 


5.8 














E 


+ 


3.9 


+ 


6.9 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


5.1 


+ 


3.8 














N 


_ 


0.9 


- 


3.1 


- 


2.9 


_ 


4.5 


- 


4.4 


144 


Oct 


7 


16.1 


33.0 N 


160.6 


Total 


69 


2.2 


352 


4.4 


351 


3.5 


359 


2.1 


279 


1.1 














E 


+ 


2.0 


- 


0.6 


- 


0.6 




0.0 


- 


1.1 














N 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


4.4 


+ 


3.5 


+ 


2.1 


+ 


0.2 




Date 


Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


6.1 


D 


6. 


5 


7. 


D 


7. 


5 


8.0 




1929 


hour 










°or i 


n/sec 


°or i 


n/sec 


° or 


n/sec 


°or 


n/sec 


or m/sec 


135 


Sep 


17 


14.7 


25.0 N 


143.8 


Total 


179 


3.0 


189 


3.0 


222 


4.8 


250 


5.0 


231 


9.6 














E 




0.0 


_ 


0.5 


- 


3.2 


- 


4.7 


- 


7.5 














N 


- 


3.0 


- 


3.0 


- 


3.6 


- 


1.7 


- 


6.0 


143 


Oct 


6 


11.1 


31.6 N 


161.0 


Total 


151 


3.0 


150 


2.7 


158 


1.8 


158 


1.8 


















E 


+ 


1.4 


+ 


1.4 


+ 


0.7 


+ 


0.7 


















N 


- 


2.6 


- 


2.3 


- 


1.7 


- 


1.7 







32 






flights made on the Carnegie , Pacific Ocean, 1928-1929— Continued 



Heights in kilometers 



1.5 



3.0 



3.5 



3.0 



3.5 



4.0 



4.5 



5.0 



5.5 



or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec • or m/sec • or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec 



58 6.6 


64 


6.6 


78 


4.1 
















+ 5.6 


+ 


5.9 


+ 


4.0 
















+ 3.5 


+ 


2.9 


+ 


0.8 
















12 5.0 










154 3.2 


153 3.2 


150 


3.8 


135 5.9 


139 5 





+ 1.0 










+ 1.4 


+ 1.4 


+ 


1.9 


+ 4.2 


+ 3 


3 


+ 4.9 










- 2.9 


- 2.8 


- 


3.3 


- 4.2 


- 3 


8 


26 2.2 


352 


2.3 


266 


4.2 


172 5.6 


205 11.4 


195 


9.0 








+ 1.0 


_ 


0.3 


- 


4.2 


+ 0.8 


- 4.8 


- 


2.3 








+ 2.0 


+ 


2.3 


_ 


0.3 


- 5.6 


-10.3 


- 


8.7 








66 2.3 


93 


1.3 


27 


2.6 


283 8.0 


273 2.7 


233 


6.9 








+ 0.6 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


1.2 


- 7.8 


- 2.7 


- 


5.5 








- 2.2 


_ 


0.1 


+ 


2.3 


+ 1.8 


+ 0.1 


- 


4.2 








20 1.8 


323 


2.2 


337 


4.2 


246 6.4 


257 7.9 


258 


6.9 


263 11.6 






- 1.2 


_ 


1.5 


_ 


3.5 


- 5.8 


- 7.7 


- 


6.8 


-11.5 






- 1.4 


- 


1.6 


- 


2.3 


- 2.6 


- 1.8 


- 


1.4 


- 1.4 







48 



31 



56 



98 



66 



4.3 
3.2 
2.9 
7.5 
3.9 
6.4 
7.0 
5.8 
3.9 
8.5 
8.4 
1.2 
5.9 
5.4 
2.4 



27 6.3 

+ 2.9 
+ 5.6 



49 9.5 
+ 7.2 
+ 6.2 

71 10.7 
+10.1 
+ 3.5 

86 7.7 
+ 7.7 
+ 0.5 



61 7.8 
+ 6.8 
+ 3.8 

87 11.1 
+11.1 
+ 0.6 
106 9.7 
+ 9.3 
- 2.7 



63 



54 

+ 
+ 
82 



5.8 
5.2 
2.6 
9.5 
7.7 
5.6 
7.5 
7.4 
1.0 



87 6.7 
+ 6.7 
+ 0.4 



82 7.5 
+ 7.4 
+ 1.0 



35 6.2 
+ 3.6 
+ 5.1 



82 7.5 
+ 7.4 
+ 1.0 



43 



5.6 
+ 3.8 
+ 4.1 



123 



3.0 
+ 2.5 
- 1.6 



170 



3.0 

0.5 

- 3.0 



115 



5.4 
4.9 
2.3 



97 



5.8 
5.8 
0.7 



88 



7.6 
7.6 

0.3 



102 6.7 
+ 6.6 
- 1.4 



72 11.6 
+11.0 
+ 3.6 



99 



154 



221 



8.2 
8.1 
1.3 
5.1 
2.2 
4.6 
2.6 
1.7 
- 2.0 



158 



230 



5.0 
1.9 
4.6 
3.9 
3.0 
2.5 



166 



257 



2.6 
0.6 
2.5 
5.1 

- 5.0 

- 1.2 



224 



277 



0.5 
0.4 
0.5 
6.0 
- 6.0 
+ 0.7 



284 



268 



1.9 
1.8 
0.5 
9.1 
9.1 
- 0.3 



292 



258- 



0.6 
9.5 
9.3 
2.0 



386 



244 



4.1 
3.9 
1.1 
5.5 

- 4.9 

- 2.4 



284 



264 



8.6 
8.3 
2.1 

8.2 
8.2 
0.9 



247 



Heights in 


k i 1 o m 


e t e r s 












8.5 


9.0 


9.5 


10.0 


10.5 


11.0 


11.5 


13.0 


13.5 


°or m/sec °or m/sec 

239 10.0 235 9.6 

- 8.6 - 7.9 

- 5.2 - 5.5 


°or m/sec 

238 10.9 

- 9.2 

- 5.8 


or m/sec 

256 15.0 
-14.6 
- 3.6 


° or m/sec 

261 17.2 
-17.0 
- 3.7 


or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


'or m/sec 


•or m/sec 



33 



Table 7 — Upper-wind components determined from pilot-balloon 





Da1 


,e 


Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


Surface 


0. 


35 


0.50 


0.' 


?S 


1.0 




1929 


hour 


o 


o 




° or m/sec 


or 


n/sec 


° or m/sec 


or m/sec 


or m/sec 


145 


Oct 


9 


13.9 


34.0 N 


156.5 


Total 


262 


9.4 


271 


L2.3 


275 13.6 


280 


L3.6 
















E 


- 


9.3 




12.3 


-13.6 


- 


13. 4 
















N 


_ 


1.3 


+ 


0.2 


+ 1.2 


+ 


2.4 




146 


Oct 


9 


14.4 


34.0 N 


156.5 


Total 


262 


9.4 


273 


11.6 


273 13.1 


277 


13.8 


285 14.7 














E 


- 


9.3 




11.6 


-13.1 


- 


13.7 


-14.2 














N 


- 


1.3 


+ 


0.6 


+ 0.7 


+ 


1.7 


+ 3.8 


147 


Oct 


10 


11.1 


33.6 N 


154.5 


Total 


330 


0.9 


300 


2.5 


282 2.3 


270 


2.7 


263 4.3 














E 


_ 


0.4 


- 


2.2 


- 2.2 


+ 


2.7 


- 4.3 














N 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


1-2 


+ 0.5 




0.0 


- 0.5 


148 


Oct 


11 


13.5 


33.6 N 


151.4 


Total 
E 
N 


229 


9.4 
7.1 
6.2 


235 


14.0 

11.5 

8.0 










149 


Oct 


11 


13.8 


33.6 N 


151.4 


Total 
E 
N 


229 


9.4 
7.1 
6.2 


235 


15.8 

12.9 

9.1 










150 


Oct 


13 


13.5 


33.4 N 


145.3 


Total 


330 


2.2 


323 


4.5 


305 3.5 


298 


3.7 


280 4.4 














E 


- 


1.1 


- 


2.7 


- 2.9 


- 


3.3 


- 4.3 














N 


+ 


1.9 


+ 


3.6 


+ 2.0 


+ 


1.7 


+ 0.8 


151 


Oct 


17 


11.3 


27.4 N 


138.2 


Total 


[191 


2.2] 


254 


3.0 


232 2.8 


247 


2.4 


323 2.3 














E 


. 


0.4 


- 


2.9 


- 2.2 


- 


2.2 


- 1.4 














N 


_ 


2.2 


- 


0.8 


- 1.7 


- 


0.9 


+ 1.8 


152 


Oct 


18 


13.4 


26.0 N 


137.2 


Total 


138 


2.2 


124 


4.2 


118 4.4 


121 


4.4 


102 5.3 














E 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


3.5 


+ 3.9 


+ 


3.8 


+ 5.2 














N 


_ 


1.6 


- 


2.4 


- 2.1 


- 


2.3 


- 1.1 


153 


Oct 


19 


13.3 


24.9 N 


137.7 


Total 


79 


2.2 


77 


4.7 


105 3.6 


123 


2.7 


148 3.1 














E 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


4.6 


+ 3.5 


+ 


2.3 


+ 1.6 














N 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


1.1 


- 0.9 


- 


1.5 


- 2.6 


154 


Oct 


23 


14.6 


15.9 N 


136.9 


Total 


67 


6.7 


73 


10-0 


74 11.0 


75 


7.7 


74 6.7 














E 


+ 


6.2 


+ 


9.6 


+10.6 


+ 


7.4 


+ 6.4 














N 


+ 


2.6 


+ 


2.9 


+ 3.0 


+ 


2.0 


+ 1.8 


155 


Oct 


26 


11.1 


11.4 N 


138.6 


Total 


324 


2.2 


64 


4.8 


61 5.0 


70 


5.6 


80 5.7 














E 


_ 


1.3 


+ 


4.3 


+ 4.4 


+ 


5.3 


+ 5.6 














N 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


2.1 


+ 2.4 


+ 


1.9 


+ 1.0 


156 


Oct 


27 


14.9 


9.9 N 


139.9 


Total 


[ 90 


2.2] 


32 


1.9 


35 0.9 


38 


0.5 


39 0.5 














E 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


1.0 


+ 0.5 


+ 


0.3 


+ 0.3 














N 




0.0 


+ 


1.6 


+ 0.7 


+ 


0.4 


+ 0.4 


157 


Oct 


28 


14.9 


8.5 N 


140.8 


Total 


76 


2.2 


61 


3.9 


55 4.0 


58 


4.0 


58 4.9 














E 


+ 


2.1 


+ 


3.4 


+ 3.3 


+ 


3.4 


+ 4.2 














N 


+ 


0-5 


+ 


1.9 


+ 2.3 


+ 


2.1 


+ 2.6 


158 


Oct 


29 


14.4 


7.6 N 


141.5 


Total 


87 


4.0 


87 


5.8 


77 6.5 


72 


6.9 


67 7.2 














E 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


5.8 


+ 6.3 


+ 


6.6 


+ 6.6 














N 


+ 


0.2 


+ 


0.3 


+ 1.5 


+ 


2.1 


+ 2.8 


159 


Nov 


4 


13.7 


3.0 N 


149.9 


Total 


143 


4.0 


138 


6.2 


130 6.5 


103 


7.8 


84 8.5 














E 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


4.2 


+ 5.0 


+ 


7.6 


+ 8.4 














N 


- 


3.2 


- 


4.6 


- 4.2 


- 


1.8 


+ 0.9 


160 


Nov 


5 


13.5 


0.6 N 


151.6 


Total 


120 


9.4 


96 


9.3 


106 10.5 


100 


13.6 


101 12.0 














E 


+ 


8.1 


+ 


9.2 


+ 10.1 


+ 


13.4 


+11.8 














N 


_ 


4.7 


- 


1.0 


- 2.9 


- 


2.4 


- 2.3 


161 


Nov 


6 


13.9 


2.1 S 


152.4 


Total 


87 


9.4 


73 


9.4 


76 9.1 


72 


10.0 


66 10.8 














E 


+ 


9.4 


+ 


9.0 


+ 8.8 


+ 


9.5 


+ 9.9 














N 


+ 


0.5 


+ 


2.8 


+ 2.2 


+ 


3.1 


+ 4.4 


162 


Nov 


6 


14.4 


2.2 S 


152.4 


Total 
E 

N 


87 

+ 
+ 


9.4 
9.4 
0.5 


70 

+ 
+ 


9.2 
8.6 
3.2 


73 9.9 
+ 9.5 
+ 2.9 










Date 


Local 
appar - 
ent 
time 


Position 


Wind 
com- 
ponent 




No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


6. 


D 


6. 


5 


7.0 


7. 


5 


8.0 




1929 


hour 


o 


o 




o or 


n/sec 


or 


m/sec 


or m/sec 


or 


m/sec 


°or m/sec 


147 


Oct 


10 


11.1 


33.6 N 


154.5 


Total 
E 
N 


244 


4.2 

3.8 
1.8 


244 


4.2 
3.8 
1.8 










151 


Oct 


17 


11.3 


27.4 N 


138.2 


Total 


245 


6.1 


314 


9.1 


283 6.2 


317 


7.7 


320 6.0 














E 


_ 


5.5 


- 


6.6 


- 6.0 


- 


5.2 


- 3.9 














N 


_ 


2.6 


+ 


6.3 


+ 1.4 


+ 


5.6 


+ 4.6 


152 


Oct 


18 


13.4 


26.0 N 


137.2 


Total 


257 


2.7 


253 


2.2 


267 3.4 


265 


2.4 


290 3.1 














E 


_ 


2.6 


- 


2.1 


- 3.4 


- 


2.4 


- 2.9 














N 


- 


0.6 


_ 


0.6 


- 0.2 


- 


0.2 


+ 1.1 


156 


Oct 


27 


14.9 


9.9 N 


139.9 


Total 
E 
N 


176 

+ 


6.0 
0.4 
6.0 


180 


6.0 
0.0 
6.0 











34 



flights made on the Carnegie , Pacific Ocean, 1928-1929— Continued 



Heights in kilometers 



1.5 



2.0 



2.5 



3.0 



3.5 



4.0 



4.5 



5.0 



5.5 



°or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec °or m/sec °or m/sec 



263 9.6 


258 10.1 


250 10.8 


283 9.5 


244 7.0 


244 7.0 


244 7.0 


244 7.0 


244 4.2 


- 9.5 


- 9.9 


-10.2 


- 9.3 


- 6.3 


- 6.3 


- 6.3 


- 6.3 


- 3.8 


- 1.2 


- 2.1 


- 3.7 


+ 2.1 


- 3.1 


- 3.1 


- 3.1 


- 3.1 


- 1.8 



271 


8.6 


































_ 


8.6 


































+ 


0.2 


































332 


4.8 


322 


8.0 


298 


6.2 


255 


5.3 


342 


3.8 


311 


3.7 


311 


5.1 


301 


4.4 


306 


6.9 




2.2 


_ 


4.9 


_ 


5.5 


- 


5.1 


- 


1.2 


- 


2.8 


- 


3.8 


- 


3.8 


- 


5.6 


+ 


4.2 


+ 


6.3 


+ 


2.9 


- 


1.4 


+ 


3.6 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


3.4 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


4.1 


85 


5.9 


90 


6.7 


115 


5.6 


148 


1.4 


160 


1.6 


128 


3.4 


113 


2.5 


109 


2.3 


217 


3.2 


+ 


5.9 


+ 


6.7 


+ 


5.1 


+ 


0.7 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


2.7 


+ 


2.3 


+ 


2.2 


- 


1.9 


+ 


0.5 




0.0 


- 


2.4 


- 


1.2 


- 


1.5 


- 


2.1 


- 


1.0 


- 


0.8 


- 


2.6 


135 


7.1 


151 


6.1 


145 


7.1 


























+ 


5.0 


+ 


3.0 


+ 


4.1 


























_ 


5.0 


- 


5.3 


- 


5.8 


























136 


2.5 


178 


5.0 


221 


3.5 


301 


3.2 


301 


4.8 


314 


4.8 


302 


3.8 


206 


3.7 






+ 


1.7 


+ 


0.2 


_ 


2.3 


- 


2.7 


- 


4.1 


- 


3.4 


- 


3.2 


- 


1.6 






_ 


1.8 


_ 


5.0 


_ 


2.6 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


2.5 


+ 


3.3 


+ 


2.0 


- 


3.3 






213 


2.4 


255 


2.0 


293 


4.5 


275 


5.0 






















- 


1.3 


- 


1.9 


- 


4.1 


- 


5.0 






















_ 


2.0 


_ 


0.5 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


0.4 






















39 


1.8 


54 


2.7 


66 


3.1 


86 


4.9 


127 


5.6 


93 


4.0 


80 


3.5 


102 


2.5 


171 


2.9 


+ 


1.1 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


4.9 


+ 


4.5 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


3.4 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


1.4 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


0.3 


- 


3.4 


- 


0.2 


+ 


0.6 


- 


0.5 


- 


2.9 


67 


5.6 


67 


5.6 


71 


5.9 


























+ 


5.2 


+ 


5.2 


+ 


5.6 


























+ 


2.2 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


1.9 


























72 


6.3 


67 


6.5 


90 


6.2 


91 


6.9 


83 


7.7 


86 


7.5 


89 


9.8 


70 


7.7 


70 


7.7 


+ 


6.0 


+ 


6.0 


+ 


6.2 


■»• 


6.9 


+ 


7.6 


+ 


7.5 


+ 


9.8 


+ 


7.2 


+ 


7.2 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


2.5 




0-0 


- 


0.1 


+ 


0.9 


+ 


0.5 


+ 


0.2 


+ 


2.6 


+ 


2.6 


84 


5.3 


84 


5.7 


87 


6.7 


87 


6.6 


75 


9.8 


















+ 


5.3 


+ 


5.7 


+ 


6.7 


+ 


6.6 


+ 


9.5 


















+ 


0.6 


+ 


0.6 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


2.5 


















93 


9.3 


































+ 


9.3 


































- 


0.5 



































Heights in kilometers 



8.5 



9.0 



9.5 



10.0 



10.5 



11.0 



11.5 



12.0 



12.5 



°or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec 'or m/sec 



275 3.3 164 3.3 166 4.9 
- 3.3 + 0.9 + 1.2 
+ 0.3 - 3.2 - 4.8 



35 



Tabid 7 — Upper-wind components determined from pilot-balloon 



No. 



Date 



Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 



Position 



Lati- 
tude 



Long. 

west 

of Gr. 



Wind 
com- 
ponent 



Surface 



0.25 



0.50 



0.75 



1.0 





1929 


hour 


o 







163 


Nov 


7 


13.7 


5.0 


S 


153.6 


164 


Nov 


8 


13.3 


6.7 


S 


155.2 


165 


Nov 


9 


15.7 


8.3 


3 


157.2 


166 


Nov 


11 


15.3 


9.4 


S 


159.2 


167 


Nov 


14 


14.5 


11.6 


S 


163.1 


168 


Nov 


15 


14.0 


12.1 


s 


165.1 


169 


Nov 


16 


14.8 


13.0 


s 


167.3 


170 


Nov 


17 


13.8 


13.7 


s 


168.6 


171 


Nov 


17 


14.3 


13.7 


s 


168.6 





or i 


n/sec 


° or m/sec 


° or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


°or m/sec 


Total 


53 


6.7 


47 


9.3 


44 


9.7 


44 


L0.3 


47 


9.3 


E 


+ 


5.4 


+ 


6.8 


+ 


6.7 


+ 


7.2 


+ 


6.8 


N 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


6.3 


+ 


7.0 


+ 


7.4 


+ 


6.3 


Total 


65 


6.7 


67 


.0.1 


71 


9.7 


68 


8.4 


76 


6.6 


E 


+ 


6.1 


+ 


9.3 


+ 


9.2 


+ 


7.8 


+ 


6.4 


N 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


4.0 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


3.2 


+ 


1.6 


Total 


32 


6.7 


50 


9.5 


51 


9.1 


56 


8.3 


66 


7.1 


E 


+ 


3.6 


+ 


7.3 


+ 


7.1 


+ 


6.9 


+ 


6.5 


N 


+ 


5.7 


+ 


6.1 


+ 


5.7 


+ 


4.6 


+ 


2.9 


Total 


[ 45 


4.0] 


65 


4.8 


66 


5.5 


70 


5.4 






E 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


4.4 


+ 


5.0 


+ 


5.1 






N 


+ 


2.8 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


2.2 


+ 


1.8 






Total 


212 


0.9 


221 


1.1. 


257 


1.3 


309 


1.2 


318 


1.8 


E 


- 


0.5 


- 


0.7 


- 


1.3 


- 


0.9 


_ 


1.2 


N 


- 


0.8 


- 


0.8 


- 


0.3 


+ 


0.8 


+ 


1.3 


Total 


55 


0.9 


58 


2.8 


39 


3.1 


27 


3.9 


38 


4.4 


E 


+ 


0.7 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


2.0 


+ 


1.8 


+ 


2.7 


N 


+ 


0.5 


+ 


1.5 


+ 


2.4 


+ 


3.5 


+ 


3.5 


Total 


— 


0.0 


54 


2.0 


53 


2.1 


44 


1.8 


35 


2.0 


E 




0.0 


+ 


1.6 


+ 


1.7 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.2 


N 




0.0 


+ 


1.2 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


1.3 


+ 


1.6 


Total 


— 


0.0 


224 


1.0 


240 


1.1 


285 


1.6 


293 


2.9 


E 




0.0 


- 


0.7 


- 


1.0 


- 


1.6 


- 


2.7 


N 




0.0 


- 


0.7 


- 


0.6 


+ 


0.4 


+ 


1.1 


Total 


— 


0.0 


245 


2.6 


241 


2.5 


263 


2.0 


295 


2.6 


E 




0.0 


- 


2.4 


- 


2.2 


- 


2.0 


_ 


2.4 


N 




0.0 


- 


1.1 


- 


1.2 


- 


0.2 


+ 


1.1 



No. 



Date 



Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 



Position 



Lati- 
tude 



Long. 

west 

of Gr. 



Wind- 
com- 
ponent 



6.0 



6.5 



7.0 



7.5 



8.0 



1929 hour 
167 Nov 14 14.5 

169 Nov 16 14.8 



or m/sec "or m/sec ° or m/8ec °or m/sec "or m/sec 



11.6 S 


163.1 


Total 
E 
N 


341 3.5 
- 1.1 
+ 3.3 










13.0 S 


167.3 


Total 


120 4.5 


133 6.7 


149 7.0 


159 2.9 


124. 3.7 






E 


+ 3.9 


+ 4.9 


+ 3.6 


+ 1.0 


+ 3.1 






N 


- 2.2 


- 4.6 


- 6.0 


- 2.7 


- 2.1 



Note: 



Wind direction measured from north through east; thus "Total 135 2.2, 
component from the east being of velocity 1.5 meters per second and 



36 



flights made on the Carnegie, Pacific Ocean, 1928-1929— Concluded 



H e i g h t 8 



1 n 



kilometers 



1.5 



2.0 



2.5 



3.0 



3.5 



4.0 



4.5 



5.0 



5.5 



° or m/sec "or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec °or m/sec 



46 8.2 


46 11.1 












+ 5.9 


+ 8.0 












+ 5.7 


+ 7.7 












99 5.6 


71 2.3 


17 3.9 


13 1.6 


350 1.9 


66 1 


7 


+ 5.5 


+ 2.2 


+ 1.1 


+ 0.4 


- 0.3 


+ 1 


6 


- 0.9 


+ 0.8 


+ 3.7 


+ 1.6 


+ 1.9 


+ 


7 


89 4.4 


80 4.4 


54 7.6 


23 2.8 


69 1.8 






+ 4.4 


+ 4.3 


+ 6.2 


+ 1.1 


+ 1.7 






+ 0.1 


+ 0.8 


+ 4.5 


+ 2.6 


+ 0.6 







325 0.8 325 0.5 



14 1.7 



18 3.1 



13 3.2 



18 2.9 354 2.5 337 2.4 299 3.3 



- 0.5 
+ 0.7 

44 3.0 
+ 2.1 
+ 2.2 

36 1.4 
+ 0.8 
+ 1.1 

301 3.8 

- 3.3 
+ 2.0 


+ 
62 

+ 

+ 
64 

+ 

295 

+ 


0.3 
0.4 
2.4 
2.1 
1.1 
1.9 
1.7 
0.8 

2.0 
1.8 

0.8 


+ 0.4 
+ 1.6 

80 1.8 
+ 1.8 
+ 0.3 

77 3.5 
+ 3.4 
+ 0.8 

8 1.9 
+ 0.3 
+ 1.9 


+ 1.0 

+ 3.0 

90 0.8 

+ 0.8 

0.0 

109 3.8 

+ 3.6 

- 1.2 

304 3.0 

- 2.5 
+ 1.7 


+ 0.7 

+ 3.1 

99 1.3 

+ 1.3 

- 0.2 
137 4.0 

+ 2.7 

- 2.9 

229 4.3 

- 3.2 

- 2.8 


+ 0.9 

+ 2.8 

170 1.3 

+ 0.2 

- 1.3 
165 2.8 

+ 0.7 

- 2.7 


+ 

132 

+ 


0.3 
2.5 

3.6 
2.7 

2.4 


- 0.9 
+ 2.2 

149 4.4 
+ 2.3 

- 3.8 


- 2.9 
+ 1.6 

116 2.5 
+ 2.2 

- 1.1 


Heigh 


t 3 


1 n 


k 1 1 o o 


e t e r s 














8.5 


9. 


D 


9.5 


10.0 


10.5 


11.0 


11 


.5 


12.0 


12.5 



°or m/sec °or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec ° or m/sec °or m/sec °or m/sec ° or m/sec "or m/sec 



159 2.3 
+ 0.8 
- 2.2 



E +1.5, M -1.5" means SE wind of velocity 2.2 meters per second, the 
the component from the south being of velocity 1.5 meters per second. 



37 



Table 



-Data regarding pilot-balloon flights 



No. 



Date 



Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 



Position 



Lati- 
tude 



Long. 

west 

of Gr. 



Pres- 
sure 



Temperature 



Dry 



Wet 



Humidity 



Rel, 



Abs. 



Visibility 



Sun 



Surface wind 



True 
dir. 



Force 
Beau- 
fort 



1928 



h m 



o/o 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


Oct 27 
29 
29 
31 

Nov 9 


16 
14 
14 
17 
14 


23 
31 
44 
16 
38 


5 
3 
3 
5 
1 


24 
59 
59 
02 
21 


N 
N 
N 
N 
S 


79 
79 
79 
82 
85 


59 
57 
57 
12 
11 


755.7 
754.1 
754.1 
750.8 
759.7 


24.6 
28.8 
28.8 
26.3 
19.8 


24.2 
25.4 
25.4 
24.2 
17.1 


97 
76 
76 
84 
77 


22.4 
22.6 
22.6 
21.6 
13.3 


Good 
Good 
Good 
Good 
Good 




Obscured 

Obscured 

Bright 

Obscured 

Bright 


W 

SWxW 

SWxW 

SWxW 

S 


3 
3 
3 
5 
3 


6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


11 
15 
17 
19 
20 


13 

14 
13 
14 
15 


19 

05 
25 
26 

30 


1 
2 
3 

4 
7 


51 
36 
17 

50 
20 


3 
S 
S 

S 

s 


89 

95 

100 

105 

107 


16 
57 
05 
21 
08 


761.1 
758.7 
759.2 
751.7 
758.9 


20.9 
20.2 
21.9 
22.8 
22.7 


17.5 
18.5 

19.2 
19.8 
20.5 


73 
85 
78 
76 
82 


13.4 
15.1 
15.3 
15.8 
17.0 


Good 
Very 
Very 
Very 
Fair, 


good 
good 
good 
hazy 


Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 


s 

SE 

SSE 

SExE 

ESE 


3 

3-4 
4 
4 
4 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


22 
22 
23 
24 
25 


15 
15 
15 
14 
14 


20 
41 
34 
14 
21 


12 
12 
14 
16 
19 


19 
19 
32 
59 
29 


s 
s 
s 
s 
s 


110 
110 
112 
113 
114 


34 

34 

05 
09 
08 


760.2 
760.2 
761.1 
762.0 
763.3 


23.2 
23.2 
23.2 
23.2 
23.0 


20.7 
20.7 
20.5 
20.1 
20.1 


79 
79 
78 
75 
77 


17.1 
17.1 
16.7 
16.1 
16.2 


Good, 

Good, 

Good 

Fair, 

Good 


si. hazy 
si .hazy 

hazy 


Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 


ESE 
ESE 
ESE 
ExS 

E 


5 
5 
4 
4 
4 


16 
17 
18 
19 

20 


25 
26 
27 
29 
30 


14 
16 
13 
16 
14 


35 
24 
26 
36 
28 


19 

22 
23 
25 
28 


31 
06 
27 
07 
18 


s 
s 
s 
s 
s 


114 
114 
114 
115 
115 


08 
26 
47 
32 
06 


763.3 
764.5 
764.9 
765.3 
765.3 


23.0 
22.7 
23.4 
22.8 
22.2 


20.1 
19.7 
20.5 
19.6 
19.5 


77 
76 
77 
75 
78 


16.2 
15.7 
16.6 
15.5 
15.6 


Good 
Good 
Good 
Good 
Very 


good 


Bright 

Bright 

Bright 

Obscured 

Bright 


E 

E 

ExN 

ExS 

NE 


4 
3 
3 
8 
3 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


Dec 1 

2 

4 

5 

13 


13 
13 
16 
14 
14 


25 
13 
44 
13 

04 


29 
30 
30 
28 
28 


21 
40 
58 
37 
21 


s 
s 
s 
s 
s 


114 
114 

109 
108 
109 


44 
14 
30 
42 
11 


766.2 
768.0 
763.7 
762.2 
766.6 


23.5 
23.2 
22.3 
22.8 
23.2 


19.5 
19.6 
19.3 
21.0 
20-5 


69 
72 
76 
85 
78 


15.0 
15.3 
15.3 
17.8 
16.7 


Very 
Fair 
Good 
Good 
Good 


good 


Bright 

Dim 

Bright 

Bright 

Bright 


NE 
NE 
W 

WNW 
E 


3 
3 
5 
4 

4 


26 
27 
28 
29 
30 


17 
18 

20 

26 

30 

1929 

Jan 1 

4 

5 

8 

12 


14 
13 
16 
13 
16 


55 
31 
38 
23 
44 


31 
31 
34 
40 
34 


40 
58 
18 
26 
03 


s 
s 
s 
s 

s 


109 

108 

106 

97 

91 


09 
48 
31 
33 
27 


765.1 
765.1 
765.2 
773.7 
768.2 


20.6 
20.5 
19.8 
18.8 
18.7 


16.8 
16.8 
18.9 
17.7 
16.0 


68 
69 
92 
90 
76 


12.4 
12.5 
15.9 
14.6 
12.3 


Good 
Good 
Good 
Very 
Good 


good 


Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Ptly obscured 


SE 

NNE 

NE 

NxE 

SExE 


4 
4 
3 
1 
4 


31 
32 
33 
34 
35 


14 
10 
10 
16 
13 


19 
41 
58 
35 
54 


32 

31 
31 
24 
16 


09 
46 
05 
45 
28 


s 
s 
s 
s 
s 


89 
87 
86 
82 
78 


02 
17 
37 
07 
35 


767.3 
765.4 
765.2 
762.8 
758.3 


24.5 
21. C 
20.7 
20.0 
22.8 


19.3 

16.0 
17.8 
16.8 
19.0 


62 

60 
76 
73 
70 


14.2 
11.1 
13.8 
12.7 
14.6 


Very 
Good 
Good 
Good 
Good 


good 


Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 


Calm 

NW 

W 

SExS 

SExS 



2 
3 
4 
4 


36 
37 

38 
39 
40 


13 

Feb 5 

6 

7 

8 


10 

12 

8 

8 

14 


38 
09 
52 
17 
11 


14 

12 

11 

10 

9 


14 

04 
58 
26 
59 


s 
s 
s 
s 

s 


77 
77 

78 
79 
82 


57 

10 
36 
46 
25 


759.2 
758.7 
759.8 
760.8 
758.4 


23.0 
23.6 
23.7 
25.1 
25.1 


20.0 
22.2 
20.6 
22.0 
22.3 


76 
89 
76 
76 
79 


16.0 
19.4 
16.6 
18.3 
18.8 


Good 

Fair, 

Good 

Good 

Fair 


hazy 


Bright 

Faint 

Faint 

Bright 

Intermittent 


SE 

N 

SxE 

SSE 

SxW 


4 
1-2 
4 
3 
4 


41 
42 
43 

44 
45 


8 

8 

9 

11 

12 


15 
17 
13 
17 
14 


56 
46 
29 
07 
28 


10 
10 
10 
10 

11 


00 
00 
29 
42 
11 


s 
s 
s 

s 

s 


82 
82 
84 
86 
87 


32 

42 
19 
15 
44 


757.6 
758.0 
758.0 
757.2 
757.3 


24.7 
24.3 
25. C 
24.9 
24.1 


22.0 
21.8 
21.3 
21.5 
20.7 


79 
80 
72 
74 
74 


18.5 
18.3 
17.2 
17.5 
16.6 


Fair 
Fair 
Good 
Good 
Good 




Intermittent 

Intermittent 

Bright 

Bright 

Bright 


SxW 

SWxS 
SSE 
SxW 
S 


4 
4 
2 
2 
4 


46 
47 
48 
49 
50 


13 
14 
15 
16 
17 


13 

15 
15 
16 
14 


11 

04 
34 
30 
06 


12 
14 
15 
15 
14 


39 
38 
44 
09 
43 


s 
s 
s 
s 
s 


89 
92 
95 
98 
101 


52 
36 
17 
13 
05 


758.9 
759.3 
760.2 
760.2 
759.8 


23.7 

22.8 
23.2 
24.0 
24.2 


21.0 
19.9 
20.1 
20.7 
20.8 


79 
77 
75 
74 
74 


17.3 

16.0 
16.1 
16.7 
16.7 


Good 
Good 
Fair 
Good 
Good 




Bright 

Bright 

Bright 

Faint 

Bright 


S 
S 

SSE 

SE 

SE 


5 
4 
4 
4 
5 


51 
52 
53 
54 
55 


17 
18 
19 
20 
21 


14 
13 
17 
16 
14 


39 
18 
07 
24 
59 


14 
14 
13 
12 
12 


44 
17 
28 
51 
34 


3 

s 
s 

s 
s 


101 
103 
106 
108 
110 


11 
30 
27 
32 
27 


759.8 
760.2 
758.5 
757.3 
757.6 


23.8 
25.0 
24.4 
25.5 
25.3 


20.8 
21.7 
22.2 
22.0 
21.7 


77 
75 
83 
74 
73 


16.9 
17.8 
19.0 
18.1 
17.7 


Good 

Fair, 

Good 

Good 

Good 


hazy 


Bright 

Bright 

Bright 

Intermittent 

Bright 


SE 

SExE 

SExE 

ESE 

ExS 


5 
4 
4 
3 
4 


56 

57 
58 
59 
60 


22 
23 
24 
25 

26 


13 
14 
13 
16 
14 


52 
27 

42 
50 
51 


12 
12 
12 
12 
13 


36 
32 
43 

59 
04 


s 
s 
s 

s 
s 


112 
115 
117 
119 
121 


33 
28 
44 
47 
37 


759.5 
757.6 
757.7 
757.7 
758.8 


26.0 
26.3 
27.0 
26.7 
27.0 


22.0 
22.4 
23.0 
23.0 
22.9 


71 
72 
71 
73 
71 


17.8 
18.4 
19.1 
19.2 
18.9 


Good 
Good 
Good 
Good 
Fair 




Bright 

Intermittent 

Intermittent 

Intermittent 

Faint 


ExS 
ESE 
ExN 
ExS 
ExS 


4 
4 
3 

4 
4 



38 



on the Carnegie, Pacific Ocean, 1928-1929 



Clouds 


Balloon 

disappearance 

due to 




Lower 


Middle 


Upper 


Notes 


Kind 


Amt.Dir. 


Kind 


Amt.Dir. 


Kind 


Amt.Dir. 





Nb.St 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu,Fr-Cu 
Cu,St-Cu 
Cu 

Cu 



Fr-Cu 

Cu,Fr-Cu 

Cu,Fr-Cu 

Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu,St-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 

Cu, Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu, St-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 

St-Cu, Cu 
Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu, Cu 
Fr-Cu, Cu 

Fr-Cu, Cu 
Cu 



Cu 

Cu, Fr-Cu 



10 
7 
7 
7 
5 



W 

W 

SWxW 

S A-St 

* A-St 
A-Cu 



2 SSE 
2 * 

2 ESE 



Ci 

Ci,Ci-St 
Ci,Ci-St 



2 SSE 



SSE 



E 



3 ExN 
8 ExS 
1 * 



WNW 
E 



3 SE 
* 



4 ESE 

4 ESE 

4 ESE 

1 » A-Cu 

2 E A-St 



A-St 



A-St 



SExE 



A-St, A-Cu 
A-St 
A-St, A-Cu 



2 ExS 
* 



Cl-St 
Ci-St 
Ci-St 



Ci-St 
Ci-St 



Nb- cloud 
Cloud 
Observer 
Thin Cu-cloud 
Cloud 

Distance, sails 

Distance 

Distance 

Distance 

Haze 

Haze, distance 
Haze, distance 
Distance, clouds 
Distance, clouds 
Distance , clouds 

Distance, clouds 

Cloud 

Distance .clouds 

Clouds 

Distance 

Distance 

Clouds 

Clouds 

Ci-clouds 

Clouds 

Clouds 

Distance 

Clouds 

Distance 

Cloud 



Slightly hazy 



Hazy 



Hazy 
Hazy 



Tandem balloons used 
Tandem balloons used 

Clouds increasing 



Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, St-Cu 
Fr-Cu, St-Cu 
Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu 

Cu 

Fr-Cu 



Fr-Cu 

Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu 

Fr-Cu 
St-Cu 
St-Cu 
St-Cu 
Fr-Cu 

Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, St-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 

Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu 



6 SxW 



A-St 
A-St, A-Cu 

A-Cu 

A-St, A-Cu 
A-St, A-Cu 
A-St,Cu 



Ci-St 



SE 
SW 



SxW 

SffxS 

* 

SxW 

s 



A-Cu 
A-Cu 
A-Cu 



Ci-haze 
Ci-haze 

Ci-haze 
Ci-naze 



WHW 



3 S 
1 * 

* 
9 SE 
* 

* 
SExE 
* 
9 ESE 

4 ExS 



Ci-haze 



ESE 



Ci-St 



3 N 



ExS 

ExS A-St, A-Cu 



Ci 
Ci 
Ci 



Cloud 

Cloud 

Distance 

Distance 

Distance 

Distance 
Clouds 
Into clouds 
Haze, distance 
Against clouds 

Into clouds 
Distance, haze 
Distance 
Clouds, distance 
Distance 

Clouds .distance 
Sails distance 
Bursting(T ) 
Into clouds 
Heavy rolling 

Distance 
Distance 
Distance 
Into clouds 
Into clouds 

Heavy rolling 
Heavy rolling 
Against clouds 
Cloud3, distance 
Into clouds 



Heavy rolling 
Heavy rolling 
Heavy rolling 

Very heavy rolling 



Heavy rolling 



39 



Table 8— Data regarding pilot-balloon flights on 





Date 


Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Position 


Pres- 
sure 


Tempe 


rature 


Humidity 


Visibility 


Sun 


Surface wind 


No. 


Lati- 
tude 


Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


Dry 


Wet 


Bel. 


Abs. 


True 
dir. 


Force 
Beau- 
fort 




1929 


h 


m 


o 


1 


o 


• 


mm 


°C 


°C 


o/o 


mm 










61 


Feb 27 


10 


16 


13 


20 S 


123 


59 


760.2 


27.6 


23.1 


68 


19.0 


Good 


Bright 


ExS 


5 


62 


Mar 1 


10 


21 


16 


26 S 


127 


58 


760.3 


28.9 


23.7 


65 


19.4 


Good 


Bright 


ExS 


3 


63 


2 


13 


17 


17 


00 S 


129 


55 


759.7 


28.3 


24.0 


70 


20.2 


Good 


Bright 


E 


4 


64 


3 


10 


46 


17 


07 S 


131 


39 


761.1 


28.9 


24.0 


67 


19.9 


Very good 


Bright 


ExS 


3 


65 


4 


13 


21 


17 


11 S 


133 


27 


760.0 


28.4 


24.2 


71 


20.5 


Good 


Bright 


ExS 


3 


66 


5 


13 


14 


17 


04 S 


135 


30 


760.2 


28.7 


24.3 


70 


20.6 


Good 


Bright 


SExE 


3 


67 


6 


14 


46 


17 


14 S 


136 


56 


759.1 


29.3 


24.2 


66 


20.1 


Good 


Bright 


NExE 


1 


68 


? 


13 


57 


17 


27 S 


139 


08 


758.8 


29.2 


24.0 


65 


19.8 


Good 


Bright 


NExE 





69 


10 


13 


49 


18 


02 S 


144 


14 


760.1 


29.7 


24.9 


68 


21.2 


Fair , hazy 


Obscured 


NExN 


1-2 


70 


11 


17 


32 


18 


14 S 


146 


19 


759.8 


26.0 


23.0 


78 


19.6 


Fair 


Obscured 


NWxN 


2 


71 


12 


16 


08 


17 


46 S 


148 


25 


758.6 


27.8 


24.8 


78 


22.0 


' Good 


Bright 


NWxN 


3 


72 


22 


13 


17 


17 


36 S 


151 


46 


758.2 


28.0 


24.7 


76 


21.7 


Good 


Bright 


[NW3 


[2] 


73 


23 


13 


21 


17 


08 S 


152 


45 


759.1 


29.8 


24.8 


67 


21.0 


Good 


Bright 


NExE 


1 


74 


24 


10 


23 


16 


53 S 


153 


34 


761.2 


30.0 


25.0 


67 


21.3 


Good 


Bright 


ESS 


3 


75 


25 


13 


51 


16 


30 S 


156 


13 


757.8 


29.0 


25.8 


78 


23.3 


Good 


Intermittent 


E 


4 


76 


27 


11 


40 


15 


44 S 


160 


33 


756.5 


29.0 


26.0 


79 


23.7 


Good 


Bright 


NExE 


4 


77 


28 


13 


16 


15 


31 S 


162 


04 


756.1 


29.9 


25.4 


70 


22.1 


Very good 


Bright 


NExE 


2 


78 


29 


13 


15 


15 


14 S 


163 


28 


756.2 


30.5 


25.8 


69 


22.6 


Good 


Intermittent 


Calm 





79 


30 


15 


38 


14 


42 S 


166 


03 


755.2 


28.7 


25.1 


75 


22.1 


Good 


Bright 


Sxff 


2 


80 


31 


13 


14 


14 


41 S 


168 


01 


756.3 


29.2 


25.5 


74 


22.6 


Good 


Bright 


NxE 


3 


81 


Apr 1 


15 


09 


14 


22 S 


170 


19 


756.0 


29.0 


25.7 


77 


23.1 


Good 


Intermittent 


NWxW 


3 


82 


22 


13 


47 


12 


36 S 


171 


35 


757.4 


29.5 


25.8 


75 


23.1 


Good 


Intermittent 


ESE 


4 


83 


23 


13 


35 


11 


10 S 


171 


32 


756.1 


29.2 


25.6 


75 


22.8 


Very good 


Intermittent' 


SSE 


4 


84 


24 


16 


40 


8 


22 S 


171 


14 


754.9 


29.0 


25.7 


77 


23.1 


Fair 


Bright 


ENE 


2 


85 


25 


14 


19 


7 


28 S 


171 


53 


755.3 


31.2 


26.0 


66 


22.6 


Fair 


Obscured 


Calm 





86 


25 


16 


10 


7 


19 S 


171 


56 


755.3 


30.1 


25.8 


71 


22.8 


Good 


Intermittent 


NExE 


1-2 


87 


26 


16 


48 


6 


23 S 


172 


25 


755.2 


29.8 


25.7 


72 


22.7 


Good 


Bright 


NExN 


1 


88 


27 


10 


51 


5 


10 S 


172 


24 


757.1 


31.1 


25.8 


66 


22.3 


Good 


Bright 


N 


1 


89 


28 


16 


43 


3 


27 S 


172 


46 


755.4 


28.6 


25.0 


75 


22.0 


Good 


Bright 


ENE 


3 


90 


29 


10 


50 


1 


51 S 


173 


28 


757 . 1 


28.2 


25.2 


79 


22.5 


Fair 


Bright 


E 


4 


91 


30 


13 


16 





32 N 


174 


05 


755.8 


27.7 


24.6 


78 


21.7 


Fair 


Bright 


E 


5 


92 


May 4 


16 


54 


8 


32 N 


179 


19 


756.7 


27.3 


24.5 


80 


21.7 


Fair 


Intermittent 


NExN 


5 


93 


5 


13 


47 


9 


28 N 


179 


47 


757.4 


27.2 


23.9 


76 


20.6 


Good 


Bright 


ExN 


5-6 


94 


7 


13 


33 


13 


39 N 


182 


49 


759.3 


27.1 


23.7 


75 


20.3 


Fair 


Bright 


ExN 


5 


95 


9 


13 


38 . 


16 


36 N 


188 


22 


758.8 


26.7 


23.7 


78 


20.5 


Fair 


Bright 


ExN 


5 


96 


13 


10 


56 


20 


11 N 


198 


46 


762. 1 


26.8 


22.2 


67 


17.8 


Good 


Bright 


ENE 


4 


97 


14 


13 


40 


19 


25 N 


201 


46 


759.8 


26.9 


22.2 


67 


17.7 


Fair 


Intermittent 


ESE 


5 


98 


15 


13 


14 


18 


36 N 


204 


06 


759.3 


27.1 


24.2 


79 


21.2 


Good 


Bright 


SExE 


4 


99 


16 


11 


15 


17 


30 N 


206 


31 


760.2 


28.2 


24.8 


76 


21.8 


Good 


Bright 


ESE 


4 


100 


17 


13 


10 


16 


04 N 


209 


16 


759.3 


27.8 


24.1 


74 


20.7 


Fair 


Bright 


ESE 


5 


101 


19 


15 


24 


13 


56 N 


214 


22 


757.2 


27.1 


24.6 


82 


22.0 


Good 


Bright 


ExN 


3 


102 


26 


13 


24 


16 


14 N 


215 


53 


757.3 


29.0 


25.1 


73 


21.9 


Good 


Bright 


ExN 


4 


103 


27 


13 


38 


18 


44 N 


216 


01 


758.8 


28.7 


25.2 


75 


22.3 


Good 


Intermittent 


ExN 


4 


104 


28 


15 


22 


21 


50 N 


215 


47 


759.2 


28.8 


24.4 


70 


20.7 


Good 


Bright 


ExS 


3 


105 


29 


13 


13 


23 


32 N 


215 


56 


760.0 


28.0 


24.7 


76 


21.7 


Good 


Bright 


SE 


4 


106 


30 


10 


59 


25 


11 N 


215 


56 


760.8 


28.1 


24.1 


72 


20.5 


Good 


Bright 


SSE 


3 


107 


Jun 1 


10 


50 


28 


22 N 


216 


00 


758.2 


26.0 


23.5 


81 


20.5 


Good 


Bright 


SxE 


4 


108 


3 


13 


16 


31 


08 N 


215 


46 


758.1 


20.5 


18.3 


81 


14.7 


Poor 


Thin cloud 


WxS 


4 


109 


3 


13 


35 


31 


09 N 


215 


47 


758.1 


20.5 


18.6 


84 


15.1 


Poor 


Thin cloud 


WxS 


4 


110 


5 


15 


55 


34 


15 N 


219 


08 


756.0 


23.3 


21.2 


83 


17.8 


Fair 


Intermittent 


sw 


4 


111 


25 


16 


32 


34 


55 N 


218 


47 


761.3 


23.3 


20.6 


78 


16.8 


Fair 


Bright 


E 


3 


112 


26 


14 


09 


36 


04 N 


217 


42 


763.8 


22.0 


20.2 


85 


16.9 


Fair 


Dim 


SE 


2 


113 


27 


14 


40 


36 


41 N 


216 


12 


763.4 


22.1 


20.1 


84 


16.6 


Good 


Faint 


SSW 


2 


114 


29 


13 


36 


37 


52 N 


214 


31 


764.6 


18.0 


15.4 


76 


11.8 


Very good 


Bright 


ExS 


3 


115 


30 


13 


42 


38 


10 N 


212 


55 


764.8 


18.6 


17.3 


88 


14.2 


Good 


Bright 


SE 


2 


116 


Jul 1 


13 


18 


38 


47 N 


212 


14 


766.3 


18.0 


15.5 


77 


12.0 


Good 


Bright 


SExE 


2 


117 


2 


13 


58 


39 


56 N 


210 


22 


764.7 


15.9 


13.7 


79 


10-7 


Good 


Bright 


SExS 


3 


118 


3 


14 


00 


40 


27 N 


208 


40 


763.7 


14.2 


12.0 


78 


9.4 


Good 


Faint 


[SE] 


£3] 


119 


21 


13 


57 


47 


45 N 


142 


22 


761.0 


12.5 


10.8 


82 


8.9 


Good 


Bright 


WxN 


6 


120 


21 


14 


19 


47 


45 N 


142 


22 


761.0 


12.3 


10.8 


84 


9.0 


Good 


Bright 


WxN 


6 



40 



the Carnegie, Pacific Ocean, 1928-1929 — Continued 



Clouds 


Balloon 

disappearance 

due to 




Lower 


Middle 


Upper 


Notes 


Kind 


Amt.Dir. 


Kind 


Amt. Dir. 


Kind 


Amt.Dir. 





Fr-Cu 
Cu,Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 

Cu, Fr-Cu 

Cu, Fr-Cu, St-Cu 

Cu, Fr-Cu 

Cu, St-Cu, Cu-Nb 

Cu,Cu-Nb 

Cu 

Cu 

Fr-Cu 

Cu 

Cu 

Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, Cu-Nb 
Cu, Cu-Nb 
Cu, Fr-Cu 

Cu 

Cu, Cu-Nb 

Cu 

Fr-Cu 

Cu, Fr-Cu, Cu-Nb 

Fr-Cu, Cu-Nb 

Cu, Fr-Cu, Cu-Nb 

Fr-Cu 

Fr-Cu 

Fr-Cu 



Cu, Fr-Cu, Cu-Nb 

Cu 

Fr-Cu 

Cu, Cu-Nb 

Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 

Cu 

Fr-Cu 
Cu, Cu-Nb 
Fr-Cu 
Fr-Cu 



Cu 



Cu 

Cu, Fr-Cu 



St-Cu 






Cu 
Cu 



* 

* 
3 £ 

1 ExS 
1 * 



A-St 



3 
6 
2 

10 S 
5 . 



SExE 
SxW 



Ci 



A-St 



3 NWxN 

1 * 

2 NExE 

1 * A-Cu,A-St . . 

1 * A-St 3 . . 

2 . . . A-Cu 1 . . 

3 NExE A-St,A-Cu 3 W 

5 W 

3 * 

2 NxE 



Ci-St 

Ci-St 

CI 

Ci-St 

Ci-St 



Ci,Ci-St 3 



A-Cu 



6 NWxW 

8 ESE A-Cu 

4 SSE 

3 ENE 

9 NE 



Ci, Ci-St 
Ci, Ci-St 

Ci-St 



3 NExE 

5 NE 

1 * A-Cu, A-St 

2 ENE 

IE 



Ci-haze 3 
Ci-St 3 



5 N 



6 NExN A-Cu 

2 ExN 

3 ExN 

. . ExN A-Cu 



Ci-St 
Ci 

Ci-St 

Ci-haze 



4 ... 

4 ESE 

4 SExE 
3 ESE 
3 ESE 

1 ExN 

2 ExN 

5 ExN 
1 ExS 
SE 



Ci-St 



A-Cu 



1 W 



Ci-St 
Ci, Ci-St 1 



5 SW 



A-Cu, A-St 

A-St 

A-St 

A-St 

A-St 





1 

10 

10 

5 



SxE 



Ci-St 

Ci-St 
Ci-St 



A-Cu 5 
A-St 10 
A-St, A-Cu 10 



A-St 



4 SW 
4 SW 



10 



Ci-haze 
Ci-haze 

Ci-haze 
Ci-haze 



5 . 
5 

5-10. 
3 



Distance 
Distance 
Distance 
Distance 
Burstlng(? ) 

Clouds, distance 
Bursting 
Distance 
Into clouds 
Clouds 

Clouds 

Distance, clouds 
Distance 
Distance, sails 
Into clouds 

Distance, clouds 
Sun, clouds 
Behind cloud 
Clouds, distance 
Distance 

Into clouds 
Into clouds 
Distance 
Ci-St-haze 
Into clouds 

Distance, Sun 
Cu-Nb-cloud 
Into cloud 
Distance 
Distance, haze 

Distance 
Distance 
Clouds, distance 
Distance 
Clouds 

Into cloud 
Ci-haze, clouds 
Distance 
Distance 
Clouds, distance 

Clouds 
Distance 
Clouds, distance 
Bursting 
Bursting(? ) 

Ci-St-clouds 
Distance, clouds 
Haze, overcast 
Haze,overca8t 
Clouds 

Clouds 
Clouds 
Into clouds 
Distance, haze 
Ci-haze 

Ci-haze 
Distance, haze 
Into clouds 
Into cloud 
Clouds 



Heavy rolling 

Balloon went across bow 



Main engine running 



Very heavy roll, pitch 
Heavy roll, pitch 



Very heavy rolling 



41 



Table 8 — Data regarding pilot-balloon flights on 





Date 


Local 
appar- 
ent 
time 


Position 


Pres- 
sure 


Temperature 


Humidity 


Visibility 


Sun 


Surface wind 


No. 


Lati- 
tude 




Long. 

west 

of Gr. 


Dry 


Wet 


Rel. 


Abs. 


True 
dir. 


Force 
Beau- 
fort 




1929 


h 


m 





1 




o 


t 


mm 


°C 


°C 


o/o 


mm 












121 
122 
123 
124 
125 


Jul 23 

26 

Sep 8 

9 

9 


13 
13 
15 
11 
11 


20 
30 
55 
06 
22 


44 
39 
31 
30 
30 


13 
32 
24 
26 
25 


N 
N 
N 
N 

N 


137 
129 
129 
130 
130 


30 

19 
10 
51 
52 


764.2 
767.6 
761.1 
763.4 
763.4 


13.2 
17.0 
22.0 
21.8 
21.9 


11.0 
13/6 
17.4 
17.3 
17.7 


77 

69 
64 
64 
67 


8.7 
10.0 
12.6 
12.6 
13.1 


Fair 
Good 
Good 
Good 
Good 




Bright 

Obscured 

Bright 

Bright 

Bright 


WSW 

NExN 
NNW 
NWxN 
NWxN 


4 
5 
3 
3 
3 


126 
127 


10 
11 
12 
13 
14 


16 
15 
13 
10 
14 


01 

21 
15 
49 
48 


29 
28 
27 
27 
26 


07 

08 
41 
01 
40 


N 
N 
N 
N 
N 


132 
134 
135 
137 

139 


52 
31 
36 

40 

12 


[761.6] 
761.3 
762.3 
763.8 
762.3 


23.0 
24.0 
23.8 
23.6 
25.3 


18.0 
18.0 
18.6 
19.0 
21.0 


62 

56 
61 
65 
68 


13.0 
12.5 
13.5 
14.2 
16.5 


Fair 




Bright 


NExN 

NExE 

SxE 

SExE 

Calm 


3 
2 


128 
129 
130 


Good 
Very 

Good 


good 


Quite bright 
Bright 
Med. bright 


2 

2 



131 
132 
133 
134 
135 


16 

16 
16 
17 
17 


13 
14 
15 
13 
14 


57 

26 
00 
40 
40 


26 

26 
26 

25 
25 


11 
11 
11 

01 
01 


N 
N 
N 
N 
N 


142 
142 
142 
143 
143 


10 
10 
10 
48 
48 


763.1 
763.1 
763.1 
764.7 
764.7 


25.2 
25.2 
24.9 
27.2 
26.3 


21.1 

21.0 
20.9 
22.2 
21.7 


70 
69 
70 
65 
67 


16.7 

16.6 
16.5 
17.6 
17.2 




8 a) 

7 

7 
8 

8 


Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 


SExE 

SExE 

SExE 

E 

E 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


136 
137 

138 

139 
140 


18 
20 
21 
22 
Oct 3 


13 
15 
14 
17 
15 


53 

42 
00 
42 

17 


23 
22 
22 
21 
23 


58 
47 
15 

37 
53 


N 
N 
N 
N 

N 


145 
151 
153 
156 
159 


47 
47 
48 
08 
41 


764.0 
760.3 
[760.6] 
760.5 
762.7 


25.7 
26.3 
27.7 

26.3 
27.0 


20.9 
22.3 
23.8 
23.4 
22.4 


65 
71 
72 
78 
67 


16.1 
18.2 
20.2 
20.1 
18.0 




6 
6 
7 
6 
8 


Bright 

Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 


ENE 

E 

ExN 

ExS 

ExS 


4 

4 
2 
3 
5 


141 
142 
143 
144 
145 


4 
5 

6 
7 

9 


15 
15 
11 
16 
13 


31 
15 
06 
07 
55 


26 
29 
31 
33 
34 


51 
30 
39 
03 
00 


N 
N 
N 
N 
N 


160 
161 
161 
160 
156 


38 
18 
01 
35 
32 


763.2 
764.1 
767.8 
768.0 
[759.2] 


26.2 
25.7 
24.9 
24.0 


22.0 
22.1 
22.0 
21.5 


69 
73 
78 
80 


17.7 
18.2 
18.4 
18.0 




8 
8 
9 
8 
7 


Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 


ExN 
ExN 
ExS 
ENE 
WxS 


5 
4 
3 
2 
5 


146 
147 
148 
149 
150 


9 
10 
11 
11 
13 


14 

11 
13 
13 

13 


21 
07 
30 
47 
30 


34 

33 
33 
33 
33 


00 
36 
38 
38 
27 


N 
N 
N 
N 
N 


156 
154 
151 
151 
145 


32 
32 
22 
22 
18 


[759.2] 
763.8 

759.6 


24.1 
21.5 
25.0 
25.0 
21.6 


21.4 
17.7 
22.7 
22.7 
17.7 


79 
69 
82 
82 
69 


17.8 
13.3 
19.6 
19.6 
13.2 




7 
6 
7 
8 
7 


Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 


WxS 

NWxN 

SW 

SW 

NWxN 


5 
1 
5 
5 
2 


151 
152 
153 
154 
155 


17 
18 
19 
23 
26 


11 
13 
13 
14 
11 


15 
23 
20 
38 

04 


27 

25 
24 
15 
11 


24 
57 
54 
52 
21 


N 
N 
N 
N 
N 


138 
137 
137 
136 
138 


09 
11 
44 
55 
38 


764.4 
[762.6] 
[761.7] 
[758.0] 

759.5 


24.5 
23.6 
22.0 
25.0 
27.7 


20.6 
18.8 
19.8 
21.2 
23.7 


70 
64 
82 
71 
72 


16.2 
13.9 
16.2 
17.0 
20.0 




9 
9 
8 
8 
8 


Bright 
Bright 
[Bright] 
Bright 
Bright 


[SxW] 
SExS 
ExN 
ENE 
NWxN 


[2] 
2 
2 
4 
2 


156 
157 
158 
159 

160 


27 

28 

29 

Nov 4 

5 


14 
14 
14 
13 
13 


56 
52 
27 
41 
29 


9 
8 
7 
2 




52 
32 
39 
58 
36 


N 
N 

N 
N 
N 


139 
140 
141 
149 
151 


54 
46 
32 
53 
33 


[759.3] 

759.4 

757.0 

[756.1] 

[755.0] 


29.0 
28.0 
27.5 
26.9 
27.0 


24.0 
24.1 
24.3 
23.6 
23.9 


66 
72 
77 
76 
77 


19.9 
20.6 
21.2 
20.2 
20.7 




8 
8 
7 
6 
8 


Bright 

Intermittent 

Bright 

Intermittent 

Bright 


[E] 
ExN 
E 

SExS 
SExE 


[2] 
2 
3 
3 
5 


161 
162 
163 
164 
165 


6 
6 
7 
8 

9 


13 
14 
13 
13 
15 


55 
25 
43 
16 
44 


2 
2 
5 
6 
8 


07 
11 

01 
44 
19 


S 

s 

s 
s 
s 


152 
152 
153 
155 
157 


26 
26 
33 
12 
14 


754.4 

754.4 

[755.5] 

[755.2] 

754.3 


27.4 
27.4 
28.3 
27.8 
29.0 


23.8 
23.7 
23.9 
23.7 

25.0 


74 
73 
69 
71 
72 


20.3 
20.1 
20.0 
19.9 
21.8 




7 
7 
7 
7 
8 


Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 
Bright 


E 

E 

NExE 

ENE 

NExN 


5 
5 
4 
4 
4 


166 
167 
168 
169 
170 


11 
14 
15 
16 
17 


15 
14 
13 
14 

13 


16 
30 
59 
46 
50 


9 
11 
12 
13 
13 


26 
39 
04 
00 
40 


s 

3 

s 

s 

s 


159 
163 
165 
167 
168 


10 
05 
04 
18 
33 


[754.7] 
756.5 
754.4 
754.1 
755.1 


29.1 
31.3 
30.2 
30.9 
31.6 


24.9 
24.0 
25.0 
22.7 
25.1 


71 
54 
66 
49 
59 


21.5 
18.7 
21.2 
16.6 
20.6 




6 
7 
7 
8 
7 


Hazy 
Bright 
Bright 
Very bright 
Bright 


CHE] 
SWxS 
NExE 
Calm 
Calm 


[3] 
1 
1 





171 


17 


14 


15 


13 


40 


s 


168 


35 


755.1 


31.5 


25.1 


60 


20.7 




7 


Bright 


Calm 






* Indicates clouds on horizon. 
a ^ Beginning with flight No. 131 of September 16, 1929, 



42 



the Carnegie, Pacific Ocean, 1928-1929 — Concluded 



Clouds 


Balloon 

disappearance 

due to 




Lower 


Middle 


Upper 


Notes 


Kind 


Amt.Dlr. 


Kind 


Amt. Dir. 


Kind 


Amt. Dir. 





Cu 
Cu,St-Cu 



Cu 

Haze 

Cu 

Cu 
Cu 
Cu 
Cu 
Cu 

Cu 

Fr-Cu 

Fr-Cu 

Cu 

Cu-Nb 

Cu 

Cu, Fr-Cu 



Cu 
Cu 

Cu 



Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu, Fr-Cu 
Cu 

Cu 
Cu 
Cu 
Cu 
Cu 

Cu 
Cu 
Cu 
Cu 
Cu 

Cu 
Cu 
Cu 
Cu 
Cu 

Cu 
Cu 
Cu 
Cu 
Cu 

Cu 



2 
10 



Ci-haze ... * 



2 SE 
* 
5 S 



Ci 



ENE 

ENE A- St 



3 NE 
7 SW 

5 SSW 



A-Cu 
A-St 



Ci 
Ci 

Ci 



7 SW 
7 SW 

5 NNW 



A-St 



Ci 



NE 



Ci 



ExS 



Ci 



3 ExN 

4 ExN 
4 NNE 
1 



2 NNE Ci 



Ci-St 
Cl-St 
Ci-St 
Ci 



4 . . . A-Cu 4 

1 . . . A-Cu 1 . . . Ci-St 

3 Ci-Cu 

1 

5 

5 



Distance, haze 
Into clouds 
Clouds 
Clouds 
Into clouds 

Into clouds 

Sails 

Distance 

Distance 

Distance 

Clouds 
Into clouds 
Cloud 
Cloud 
Bursting 

Distance 
Into cloud 
Clouds 
Distance 
Cloud 

Sun 
Clouds 

Distance, clouds 
Distance 
Haze, clouds 

Haze, distance 

Distance 

Clouds 

Clouds 

Ci-clouds 

Bursting( ? ) 

Distance 

Distance 

Clouds 

Cloud 

Distance 

Clouds 

Clouds 

Clouds 

Distance 

Distance 
Distance 
Clouds, haze 
Distance, haze 
Haze 

Clouds 

Haze, distance 

Distance 

Distance 

Cloud 

Clouds 



Sky 3/4 clouded 
Sky 1/3 clouded 
Sky 1/3 clouded 

Sky 1/2 clouded 
Sky 1/3 clouded 
Horizon slightly hazy 
Horizon slightly hazy 



Cloudless sky 
Clouds increasing 



[] Indicate approximate values. 
the scale of visibility to 9 was used. 



43 



FIGURES 1 - 46 



FROM BALLOO 




NOTE: OPTICAL PARTS SHOWN 
BY DOTTED LINES FOUND ONL' 
IN INSTRUMENTS PROVIDED 
WITH ARTIFICIAL HORIZON 



HORIZONTAL PRIJ 
OF TRIANGULAR 
CROSS SECTION 



TWO SILVERED STRIPS 
ARE CARRIED ON THIS 
' SURFACE 



N: 



SHADE GLASS 



FROM HORIZON 



* 

IB 

4V> 

FIG. 1(A) 



...VK 



HORIZONTAL PRISM 

OF QUADRANGULAR 

CROSS SECTION 



FIGS. I AND 2-SHIPBOARD THEODOLITE 

FIG. I — (A) SKETCH OF OPTICAL SYSTEM; (b) FIELD OF VIEW UNDER DIFFERENT CON- 
DITIONS 

FIG. 2 — (A) INSTRUMENT MOUNTED ON TRIPOD SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHT; (B) DETAILED 

VIEW 




FIELD OF VIEW 

A=VERTICAL STRIPS IN WHICH 
HORIZON IS SEEN AND WHICH 
REMAIN 'STATIONARY" WHEN ELE- 
VATION SCREW IS TURNED 
B=GENERAL FIELD IN WHICH 
BALLOON IS SEEN AND WHICH 
CHANGES AS ELEVATION SCREW 
IS TURNED 




SHOWING HOW BALLOON AND 
HORIZON MOVE TOGETHER AS 
THEODOLITE IS SWINGING 

DOTTED LINES SHOW POSITIONS 
ASSUMED BY BALLOON AND 
HORIZON WITH MOVEMENT OF 
THEODOLITE 




FIELD WHEN TAKING OBSERVA- 
TION USING HORIZON 

A= IMAGE OF BALLOON ON A LINE 

WITH HORIZON AND IN LINE WITH 

THE VERTICAL CROSS HAIR 

B = HORIZON SHOWN IN STRIPS ON 

EACH SIDE 

NOTE: BALLOON SHOULD BE A- 

L1GNED WITH HORIZON AS SHOWN, 

AND NOT WITH HORIZONTAL 

CROSS HAIR 




OBSERVATION USING BUBBLE 
INSTEAD OF HORIZON 



A=UPPER IMAGE OF BUBBLE 
B = LOWER IMAGE OF BUBBLE 
C=BU8BLE-OVERLAP (CIGAR SHAPED) 
D = BALLOON KEPT IN LINE WITH 
DARK CIGAR SHAPE MADE BY 
BUBBLE-OVERLAP AS SHOWN, AND 
NOT WITH HORIZONTAL CROSS HAIR 
NOTE: BUBBLE-IMAGE APPEARS 
ONLY IN THE RIGHT STRIP 



FIG. 1(B) 




47 





48 







o 
o 



UJ 

o 



o 

h- 
o 



49 




50 




FLIGHTS 1-8 

WIND VELOCITY IN METERS PER SECOND 

5 10 15 

FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 

20 30 

FOR 2-MINUTF INTERVAL 

(SLANT NUMBERS APPLY TO REDUCED SCALE 



SYMBOLS 

SCALE USED 
NORMAL REDUCED 



I COURSE • 

f OBSERVED o 

N INTERPOLATED G 



DISTANCES IN KILOMETERS 



h 



4- 



FIG 6- PLOT TING- BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

OCTOBER 27 TO NOVEMBER 17, 1928 
51 






[ COURSE 

[observed 
h interpolated 




FLIGHTS 9 - 14 

WIND VELOCITY IN METERS PER SECOND 

5 10 15 

I l I 

FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 



DISTANCES IN KILOMETERS 



FIG 7- PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

NOVEMBER 19-24,1928 



52 




FIG. 8 -PLOT TING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

NOVEMBER 25 TO DECEMBER 4, 1928 
53 




SYMBOLS 

SCALE USED 
NORMAL REDUCED 



FLIGHTS 24-29 

WIND VELOCITY IN METERS PER SECOND 
5 10 15 

1 1 i 

FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 

Zp 30 do 50 

FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 
(SLANT NUMBERS APPLY TO REDUCED SCALE) 



DISTANCES IN KILOMETERS 



FIG. 9— PLOT TING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIPAND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

DECEMBER 5-26, 1928 



54 




j SHIP STATIONARY 



SHIP STATION 



FLIGHTS 30-38 

WIND VELOCITi IN METERS PER SECOND 



FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 



FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 

( SLANT NUMBERS APPLY TO REDUCED SCALE) 



FIG 10-PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

DECEMBER 30 1928 TO FEBRUARY 6 1929 
55 




FIG 1 1- PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

FEBRUARY 7-13,1929 
56 





FLIGHTS 47-51 

WIND VELOCITY IN METERS PER SECOND 



FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 
f SLANT NUMBEflS APPLY TO REDUCED SCALE) 



FIG.I2— PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

FEBRUARY 14 - 1 1, 1929 
57 




'8% 




FLIGHTS 52 -58 

WIND VELOCITY IN METERS PER SECOND 

15 2,0 



FOR Z-MIHUTE INTERVAL 
(SLANT NUMBERS APPl_f TO REDUCED 5CALE 



-^25 








7 


SYMBOLS 








<? 30 










POSITION 


SCALE 

DRMAL 


USED 
REDUCED 


26 




SH,P [course 


O 


o 

• OR * 






(observed 

BALLOON 

[INTERPOLATED 


D 


a 







DISTANCES IN KILOMETERS 



FIG 13-PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

FEBRUARY 18-24, 1929 



58 




FLIGHTS 59-62 

WIND VELOCITY IN METERS PER SECOND 

I 5 10 15 20 

I :_J_ I J 

FOR 2-MlNUTE INTERVAL 

> 10 20 30 40 50 

FOR 2-MlNUTE INTERVAL 

(SLANT NUMBERS APPLY TO REOUCED SCALE) 




SYMBOLS 

SCALE USED 
NORMAL REOUCEO 



[ COURSE 
OBSERVED 
INTERPOLATED 



+ 



DISTANCES IN KILOMETERS 
4 



FIG. I4-PL0TTING-B0ARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

FEBRUARY 25 TO MARCH 1,1929 
59 




FIG. 15-PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

MARCH 2-5, 1929 
60 







FIG. 16- PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

MARCH 6-27, 1929 
61 




FIG.I7-PL0TTING-B0ARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

MARCH 28 TO APRIL 25, 1929 
62 




FLIGHTS 86-91 

WIND VELOCITY IN METERS PER SECONO 

5 10 15 

F0R2-MINUTE INTERVAL 



POSITION 



SVMBOLS * 

SCALE USED # 

lORMAL REDUCED jo ^ 

MNITIAL O O I 

[COURSE • • OR * 

OBSERVE! 
INTERPOLATED 



OISTANCESIN KILOMETERS 



FIGJ8-PL0TTING-B0ARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

APRIL 25-30, 1929 



63 




f 



SYMBOLS 

,S,T,ON SCALE U5ED 

NORMAL REDUCED 

INITIAL O O 

COURSE • • OR * 

OBSERVED o A 

INTERPOLATED D 



A 28 ~\ 

\ CONTINUATION NO 96, 

REOUCED SCALE 




FLIGHTS 92-97 

WIND VELOCITV IN METERS PER SECOND 



FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 

> 10 20 30 aO 50 

1 3 I I I 

FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 

[SLANT NUMBERS APPLY TO REDUCED SCALE) 



DISTANCES IN KILOMETERS 



FIG. 19 — PLOT TING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

MAY 4-14 1929 



64 




FIG.20— PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON. PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

MAY 15-29, 1929 
65 




DISTANCES IN KILOMETERS 



SYMBOLS 

SCALE USED 
NORMAL REDUCED 



FLIGHTS 106- 115 

WIND VELOCITY IN METERS PER SECOND 

5 10 15 

_j l i 

FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 
I 20 30 

FOR Z-MINUTE INTERVAL 
(SLANT NUMBERS APPLY TO REOUCED SCALE) 



FIG.2I- PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

MAY 30 TO JUNE 30, 1929 



66 




SYMBOLS 

SCALE USED 
NORMAL REOUCED 

.l O O 

;e • • or * 



("OBSERVED 
BALLOON 



FLIGHTS 116-127 

WIND VELOCITY IN METERS PER SECOND 
? '? '? 2 f 

FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 



NTERPOLATEO D 



DISTANCES IN KILOMETERS 



FIG.22-PL0TTING-B0ARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

JULY I TO SEPTEMBER II, 1929 



67 




FIG 23- PLOTTING-BOARO GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, PROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

SEPTEMBER 12-22,1929 
68 




SYMBOLS 

SCALE USED 
NORMAL REOUCEO 



FLIGHTS 140-150 

WIND VELOCITY IN METERS PER SECOND 



FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 
10 20 30 40 



DISTANCES IN KILOMETERS 



FIG.24-PL0TTING-B0ARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

OCTOBER 3-13, 1929 
69 




FIG 25-PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

OCTOBER 17-28, 1929 
70 




FIG.26-PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

OCTOBER 29 TO NOVEMBER 8, 1929 
71 




FLIGHTS 165-17 

WIND VELOCITY IN METERS PER SECOND 

I 5 10 15 

I J 1 

FOR 2-MINUTE INTERVAL 





SYMBOLS 








POSITION 


SCALE 

NORMAL 


USED 
REDUCED 


SHIP 


[ COURSE 




o 

• 


O 
• OR * 




[OBSERVED 




o 


A 


BALLC 


N [ INTERPOLATED 




a 


a 



DISTANCES IN KILOMETERS 



FIG 27- PLOTTING-BOARD GRAPHS POSITIONS SHIP AND BALLOON, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 

NOVEMBER 9-17 1929 



72 



1 


1 


1 


FLIGHT NUMBER,' DATE 1928', AND 


POSITION 


| 




1 


1 


2 


3 


4 5 6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


OCT 27 


OCT 29 


OCT 29 


OCT 31 NOV 9 NOV II 


NOV 15 


NOV 17 


NOV 19 


NOV 20 


5°4N 


4°0N 


4°0N 


5°0N l°4S l°8S 


2°6S 


3?3S 


4°8S 


7°3S 


80° 


ow 


80° 


3W 


80° 


3W 


82 


>W 85. 2 W 89. 


3W 


96° 


OW 


100 


IW 


105 


4W 


107 


IW 
















TRUE WIND 


DIRECTION 


















- 
















INDICATED BV ARROWS AND 


































WIND VELOCITY BV NUMBERS 




















- 7 








5 10 










- 


METERS PE 


R SECOND 


-6 


















B 


6 








13 






















\ 


\ 


6 


> 


3 








6 






t- 
















\ 


V 




\ 








^ 






2 
O 














\ 


1 


4 


^ 








\ 


\ 




- 


X 














\ 


* 2 


[f 


X 


' 




e 




T 






















r ^ 






\ 














- 














\ 


< \ 


a 




a 


\ 


\ 


>< 


3 




- 






















5 -a 








a 
































~~~~~~ 




^ 




' 






- 














\ 


\ v 


3 

J 




i. " 




:^^ 


1 


6 




- 
















\ 


4 a 


3 


s 






4 


1 






















\ 




M 






■ 


/ 
























/ 




















- 














3 


' / 


/ 


/ 


/ 


> 


s 


> 


/ 




- 


1 7 


/ 














\ 


•» 


8 


^, 


\ 


9 




$ 




10 


7 


















\ 








\ 










r 
_ \ 


\ 


A 




6 




13 


y 2 > 


i 




\ 


e 


\ 


10 

\ 




6 




9 _ 


. 






y 




y 


9 


S 4- 


4 




\ 


s 


\ 
















/ 




/ 














\ 




I 











FIG.28— WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, I- 10 

73 



II 

NOV 22 

I2°3 S 
1 10°6 W 



12 
NOV 22 
I2°3 S 
1 1 0°6 W 



13 
NOV 23 
I4°5 S 

II2°I W 



FLIGHT 

14 
NOV 24 
I7°0 S 
II3°2 W 



NUMBER 

15 

NOV 25 

I9°5 S 

II4°I W 



DATE 



1928, AND 
16 
NOV 25 
I9°5 S 

I I4°l W 



POSITION 

17 

NOV 26 

22°l S 

II4°4W 



NOV 27 
23°4 S 
II4°8 W 



19 
NOV 29 
25°l S 
II5°5 W 



20 
NOV 30 
28°3 S 

II5°I W 



TRUE WIND DIRECTION 

INDICATED BY ARROWS AND 

WIND VELOCITY BY NUMBERS 



METERS PER SECOND 



\* 



y 




FIG.29— WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES. PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS. 11-20 



74 



21 

DEC I 

29°4S 

II4°7 W 



22 
DEC 2 
30° 7 S 
1 1 4 ° 2 W 



23 

DEC 4 

3I°0S 

I09°5 W 



FLIGHT 

24 
DEC 5 
28°6S 

I08°7 W 



NUMBER. DATE 

25 

DEC 13 

28°4S 

I09°2 W 



1928, 
26 

DEC 17 
3I°7S 
I09°2W 



AND 



POSITION 

27 

DEC 18 

32°0S 

108° 8 W 



28 
DEC 20 
34°3S 

I06°5W 



29 
DEC 26 
40°4S 
9 7° 5 W 



30 

DEC 30 

34°0S 

9I°4W 



" >' 



- H 



■7— { 



TRUE WIND DIRECTION 

INDICATED BY ARROWS AND 

WIND VELOCITY BY NUMBERS 



METERS PER SECOND 



X 



\ 



-6— i 



'/ 



V 



5' 



v -^ 



-z ^ 



-}*- 



/ 




y 



x 



\ 



\ 



,< 



-*<- 



a 



^k- 



\ 



/ 



/ 



FIG.30 — WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES. PACIFIC OCEAN. FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS. 21-30 

75 




FIG 31 — WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 31-40 

76 




FIG. 32 — WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN, 

77 



FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 41- 50 



51 
FEB 17 
I4°7S 

I0I°2 W 



52 
FEB 18 
I4°3 S 
I03°5 W 



53 
FEB 19 

I3?5 S 
I06°4 W 



FLIGHT 
54 
FEB 20 
I2°9 S 

I08°5 W 



NUMBER, DATE 

55 

FEB 21 

I2°6S 

!I0°4W 



1929, AND 
56 

FEB 22 

I2°6 S 
1 1 2°6 W 



POSITION 

57 

FEB 23 

I2°5 S 

II5°5 W 



58 
FEB 24 
I2°7 S 
II7°7 W 



59 60 

FEB 25 FEB 26 

I3°0 S I3°l S 

1 19°8 W 12 l°6 W 



TRUE WIND DIRECTION 

INDICATED BY ARROWS AND 

WIND VELOCITY BY NUMBERS 



METERS PER SECOND 



/ 



Z 



X 



/ 



X 



>' 



/ 



V 



-3^ 



\ 



\ 



-^ 




FIG 33— WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 51-60 

78 



1 


| 


| 


FLIGHT NUMBER,' DATE 


19291 AND 


POSITION 


| 


61 

FEB 27 
I3°3S 
I24°0W 


62 
MAR 1 
I6°4S 

I28°0W 


63 
MAR 2 
I7?0 S 

I29°9W 


64 65 
MAR 3 MAR 4 
I7°IS I7°2 S 
I3I°6W I33°4W 


66 

MAR 5 
I7°l S 
I35°5W 


6 
MAR 
I7°2 
136° 


1 68 69 
6 MAR 7 MAR 10 
S I7°4S I8°0S 

3W I39°IW I44°2W 


70 
MAR II 
I8°2 S 
I46°3W 














3 






\ 

















9 












i 








\ 


























4 


4 










TRUE WIND 

INDICATED BY 

WIND VELOCIT 




DIRECTION 
ARROWS AND 
Y BY NUMBERS 








8 














^ 










10 








MCTERS PER SECOND 














' 
X 


5 

4 




J 
3 






























\ 




















- 




\ 


5 











a 


















- 


CE 






\ 












/ 
















2 
o 

— i 




\ 


9 

\ 




^ 




■■■) 




/ 


/ 




2 


( 






- 






■jz 




\ 


8 


_\> 






7 ^ 




y 






z 










5 

e 




\ 


\ 

6 

\ 


J 


< 




^ 




a 






/ 


' 






- 






\ 








\ 








/ 




5 


/ 














\ 








( 




/ 






/ 










_ 6 




9 

i 


J 
1 


3 

i 


! 


3 


1 

\ 




*> 


r. 




5 








- 


- 9 




9 


1 




A 




6 




2 




\ 


5 








3 yt 




/ 












\ 




< 






\ 








__ a, 








e 






\ "** 


^ 


' 


2 


2 
/ 


/ > 


\ 






- 


_ 10 




7 






^ 




7 6 








1 


t 2 — 


3 












a, 




e 




t 


^ / 


/ 


^ 




' 


! 


5 


' 




- 


1^, ^2 




8 




6 




t 




^ 


\ 




2 


i 




S 


\ 


5 






^ 










^ 












x 






\ 






6 














m a 






,i 


• 


' 


\ 


5 














^___ 


a 
















X 








2 


> 


> 


2 









■ 








' 


' ' 




\ 






y 






\ 



FIG 34— WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 61-70 



79 



71 
MAR 12 
I7°8S 
I48°4W 



72 
MAR 22 
I7°6S 

I5I°8W 



73 
MAR 23 
I7°l S 
I52°8W 



FLIGHT 

74 
MAR 24 
I6°9 S 
I53°6W 



NUMBER, DATE 

75 

MAR 25 

I6°5 S 

I56°2W 



1929, AND 

76 
MAR 27 
I5°7S 
1 60°6 W 



POSITION 

77 

MAR 28 

I5°5 S 

I62°l W 



78 
MAR 29 
I5°2S 
I63°5W 



79 80 

MAR 30 MAR 31 

I4°7S I4°7S 

I66°l W I68°0W 



TRUE WIND DIRECTION 

INDICATED BY ARROWS AND 

WIND VELOCITY BY NUMBERS 



METERS PES SECOND 



\ 



l 



^~ 



\. 



\ 



V 



^ 



V 



\ 



>, ^ 



>K 



il 



s < 



-3— V 



V 2 >£ 



/ 



J 



V 



-z^<- 



/ 



/ 



x- 



y 



\ 



¥ 



i 



&■ 



\ 



n 



FIG 35— WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 71 -c 



80 



FLIGHT NUMBER DATE 1929 AND POSITION 

81 82 83 84 85 

APR I APR 22 APR 23 APR 24 APR 25 

I4°4S I2°6S 1 1°2 S 8°4S 7°5 S 

I70°3W I7I°6 W 1 7 1°5 W I7I°2 W I7I°9W 



86 


87 


88 


89 


90 


APR 25 


APR 26 


APR 27 


APR 28 


APR 29 


7°3S 


6°4S 


5°2S 


3°4S 


l°8 S 


I7I°9W 


1 72°4 W 


I72°4W 


I72°8W 


I73°5W 



TRUE WIND DIRECTION 

INDICATED BV ARROWS AND 

-WIND VELOCITY BY NUMBERS - 



METERS PER SECOND 




\ 



/ 



**" 



^ 



FIG.36 — WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 81-90 

81 




FIG37— WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 91-100 



1 






FLIGHT 


NUMBER, DATE 


101 


102 


103 


104 


105 


MAY 19 


MAY 26 


MAY 27 


MAY 28 


MAY 29 


I3°9 N 


I6°2 N 


I8°7 N 


2I°8 N 


23°5 N 


2I4°4 W 


2I5°9 W 


2I6°0W 


2I5°8W 


2I5°9 W 



1929, AND POSITION 

106 107 108 

MAY 30 JUN I JUN 3 

25°2 N 28°4 N 3I°I N 

2I5°9W 2I6°0W 2I5°8W 



109 110 

JUN 3 JUN 5 

3I°2 N 34°3 N 

2I5°8W 2I9°I W 



\ 



TRUE WIND DIRECTION 

INDICATED BY ARROWS AND 

WIND VELOCITY BY NUMBERS 



. i i 



10 



METERS PER SECOND 



\ 



^ 



\ 



^ 



V 



\ 



/ 



FIG. 38 — WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 101 -110 



83 



1 


1 


1 


FLIGHT 


NUMBER, DATE 1929, AND 


POSITION 




1 




III 


112 


113 


114 


115 116 


117 


118 


119 


120 


JUN 25 


JUN 26 


JUN 27 


JUN 29 


JUN 30 JUL 1 


JUL 2 


JUL 3 


JUL 21 


JUL 21 


34°9 N 


36° 1 N 


36° 7 N 


37°9 N 


38°2 N 38°8 N 


39°9 N 


40°4N 


47°8 N 


47°8 N 


" 218 

- 9 


°8 W 


217° 


7 W 


216° 


2 W 


214° 


5 W 


2I2°9W 2I2°2W 


210 


4W 


208 


7W 


142 


'4W 


142° 


4 W 


-8 
















'TRUE WIND DIRECTION 
INDICATED BY ARROWS AND 


















- 
















WIND VELOCITY BY NUMBERS 
















- 


















( 


5 1 


) 




















METERS PER SECOND 




- 












\ 


4 








\ 


10 












- 
















5 


/ 


/ 






\ 

\ 












- 




















V 


6 


/ 




\ 


'2 














UJ 

o 












/ 




1 






\ 


\ 














2 

o 

1 






















5 


1 






























^ 






1 
















\ 


6 

\ 










1 


r 


* 


y 




b 

1 


J 












- 


, \ 


6 










2 




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4 6 


/ 


3 


1 
















\ 
















^ 7 




^ 
















\ 


\ 










■ 


.2 


\ 


\ -> 




V 


K 












- 




/ 












L 


i- 


f 




y 


2 














_2 ) 
















~l 








\ 














- } 


/ 










> 


< 2 


A 


/ 


3 


4 

i 










13 




- 


1 * 


/ 


5 




3 


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3 




S 3 


/ 


j 


/ 








12 




13 


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S 






1 


y 


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— 6, 




e 

/ 


/ 


5, 




J. 




) 


t 


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) 


* 


3 

1 


t 




J* 




\ " 






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2 


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12 








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\ 




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FIG 39 — WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 111-120 



84 



121 
JUL 23 
44°2N 
13/5 W 



122 
JUL 26 
39°5N 
I29°3W 



FLIGHT NUMBER; DATE 1929, AND POSITION 

123 124 ■ 125 126 127 128 129 130 

SEP6 SEP9 SEP9 SEP 10 SEP 1 1 SEP 12 SEP 13 SEP 14 

3I°4N 30°4N 30°4N 29°l N 28° I N 27°7 N 27°0 N 26°7 N 

I29°2W I30°8W I30°9W I32°9 W I34°5 W I35°6 W I37°7 W I39°2 W 



TRUE WIND DIRECTION 

INDICATED BY ARROWS AND 

WIND VELOCITY BY NUMBERS 



METERS PER SECOND 



7 .. 



^ 



^ 



I 



/ 



V 4- 4 



f- 



d 



X 



^V 



FIG.40— WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 121-130 

85 




FIG 41- WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 131 -140 

86 




FIG 42— WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 141-150 

87 



151 152 

OCT 17 OCT 18 

2.1° A N 26°0 N 

I38°2 W I37°2 W 



153 
OCT 19 
24°9 N 
I37°7 W 



FLIGHT 

154 
OCT 23 
I5°9 N 
I36°9 W 



NUMBER. DATE 

155 

OCT 26 

ll°4 N 

I38°6 W 



1929. AND 

156 

OCT 27 

9-9 N 

!39°9 W 



POSITION 

157 

OCT 28 

8°5 N 

I40°8 W 



158 

OCT 29 

7°6 N 

I4I°5W 



159 

NOV 4 

3°0 N 

I49°9W 



160 
NOV 5 
0°6N 
I5I°6 W 



TRUE WIND DIRECTION 

INDICATED BY ARROWS AND 

.WIND VELOCITV BY NUMBERS . 

o 5 to 



METERS PER SECOND 



/ 



^ 



"H 



X 



v <. 



^ 



- y 



^— 



\ - 



\ 



y K 



V 



y 



^r 



\ 



FIG 43— WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES, PACIFIC OCEAN FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS 151 -160 



161 

NOV 6 

2°IS 

I52°4W 



162 
NOV 6 
2°2S 

I52°4W 



163 
NOV 7 
5°0S 

I53°6W 



FLIGHT 

164 

NOV 8 

6°7 S 

I55°2 W 



NUMBER, 

165 
NOV 9 
8°3S 
I57°2 W 



DATE 

166 

NOV II 

9°4 S 

I59°2 W 



1929, 



AND POSITION 

167 168 169 170 171 

NOV 14 NOV 15 NOV 16 NOV 17 NOV 17 

ll°6 S 1 2° I S I3°0 S I3°7 S I3°7 S 

I63°l W 165° I W I67°3 W I68°6 W I68°6 W 








TRUE WIND DIRECTION 

INDICATED BY ARROWS AND 

WIND VELOCITY BY NUMBERS 

S 10 



METERS PER SECOND 



/ 



I 



r- 



^k 



\ 



-/ 



y- 



\ 



\ 



V 



^ 



FIG.44-WIND DIRECTIONS AND WIND VELOCITIES. PACIFIC OCEAN, FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, 161-171 



89 




FIG 45- (a) HEIGHT FIRST APPEARANCE WEST-WIND COMPONENT (b) VELOCITY UPPER WINDS 
FROM CARNEGIE PILOT-BALLOON FLIGHTS, PACIFIC OCEAN, 1929 



90 




91 



INDEX 



Aeronautics, Bureau of, U. S. Navy, 1 
Air Corps, U. S. Army, 1 
Aleutian low-pressure center, 8, 12 
Analysis of Carnegie flights 50 to 83, 

table, 17 
Antitrades, 11, 12 
Apia, Samoa Islands, 7, 11 
Arequipa, 10 

Balloon, 2, 3 

ascensional rate, 2 

filling equipment, 2 

sextant, 3 
Beals, E. A., 12 
Beaufort Scale, wind force, 4 
Bureau of Aeronautics, U. S. Navy, 1 

California high-pressure area, 8 
Callao, Peru, 6 
Carnegie, 1 

flights 50 to 83, analysis of, table, 

17 
meteorological log, 5 
Chile, 11 
Cloud, 5 

code and forms, 5 
estimated height of, above surface 
of ocean as determined from 
disappearance of pilot balloons 
into cloud mass, table, 12 
forms and abbreviations used, 15 
heights, 12 
Color filters, 1 

Data regarding pilot-balloon flights 
on Carnegie, Pacific Ocean, 1928- 
1929, table, 39 

Doldrums, Pacific, 5, 11 

Easter Island, 6, 11 

Equatorial region of Pacific Ocean, 
winds in, 11 

Equipment used in making observa- 
tions, 1 
balloons, 2 
balloon-sextant, 3 
hydrogen, 2 
shipboard theodolite, 1 

Error in computed winds owing to, 
centering field, 3, 4 
rolling and pitching, 3, 4 
steering, 3, 4 

Estimated height of cloud above sur- 
face of ocean as determined from 
disappearance of pilot balloons 
into cloud mass, table, 12 

Figures, 45 
Filters, color, 1 
Flights, 1 

general distribution, 1 

heights reached, 1 



Free lifts, table, 2 

Frequency of winds from northwest 

quadrant at Peruvian stations, 

table, 10 

Galapagos Islands, 5 
Guam, 7, 8, 12 

Hawaiian Islands, 8 

trades and antitrades east of 
latitudes of, 12 

Heights where wind shifts occur, 
indicating change in air stra- 
tum, table, 13 

High-pressure area, 
California, 8 
upper winds over South 
American, 11 

Honolulu, 8, 9, 12 

Hydrogen, 2 

cylinders, 2 

Introduction, 1 

Japan, Pacific Ocean off, 12 

Keuffel and Esser, 1 

Log, meteorological, Carnegie, 5 
Low-pressure center, Aleutian, 8, 12 

Marianas Islands, 7 
Meteorological log, Carnegie, 5 

Northeast trades, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 

Observations, reduction of, 3 

Pacific Ocean, 

data regarding pilot-balloon flights 

on the Carnegie, 1928-1929, 

table, 39 
off Japan, 12 
upper -wind components determined 

from pilot-balloon flights 

made on Carnegie, 1928-1929, 

table, 18 
Pago Pago, Samoa Islands, 7, 9 
Panama, Gulf of, 5 
Papeete, 6, 7 
Perlewitz, P., 10 
Peru, 6, 10 
Plotting board, 2, 3 

Reduction of observations, 3 

Samoan Islands, 7, 9, 10, 11 
Sextant, 

balloon-, 3 

chair, 2 
Shade glass, 2 
Signal Corps, U. S. Army, 1 



Society Islands, 11 

South American high-pressure area, 
upper winds over, 11 

Southeast trades, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11 
wind directions above, 5 

South Pacific Ocean, trades and anti- 
trades in the central area of, 11 

St. Ana, 10 

Steering error, example of effect of, 
on computed wind velocities and 
directions, table, 4 

Tables, 15 

Theodolite, shipboard, 1 

construction of, 1 

optical system, 1, 2 
Trades and antitrades, 

east of the latitudes of the 
Hawaiian Islands, 12 

in the central area of the South 
Pacific Ocean, 11 
Trades, 

northeast, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 

southeast, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11 

wind directions above, 5 
Trade winds, velocity variation with 

height, 13 

stratification, 13 
Tuamotu Archipelago, 7, 11, 13 
Typhoon, 8 

U. S. Weather Bureau, 1 

Upper -wind components determined 
from pilot-balloon flights made on 
the Carnegie, 1928-1929, Pacific 
Ocean, table, 18 

Upper winds over South American high- 
pressure area, 11 

Velocity of trade winds, variation with 
height, 13 

Ward, R.de C, 10 
Weather Bureau, U. S., 1 
Wind, 

directions in flights 5 to 8, showing 
complexity of winds immediate- 
ly above southeast trades, table, 
5 

force, Beaufort Scale, 4 

frequency of, from northwest quad- 
rant at Peruvian stations, 
table, 10 

shifts, heights where occur, indi- 
cating change in air stratum, 
table, 13 

in the equatorial region of the 
Pacific Ocean, 11 

velocities and directions, example 
of effect of steering error on, 4 

Yokahoma, 8 



93 



i